Organised Crime and Law Enforcement Cooperation

Our rigorous evaluation and appraisal of interventions in the fight against organised crime and corruption offers practice-focused support to European institutions, governments and national and international law enforcement agencies

Research, commentary, and events

  • Filter cigarettes on a heap of loose tobacco, Photo by Maren Winter info@maren-winter.de/Adobe Stock

    Project

    Identifying an approach to measure the illicit market for tobacco

    11 May 2021

    To capture the total volume of the illicit tobacco trade in the EU and member states, as well as distinguish between the legal and illegal market, types of tobacco products, and types of illicit trade, researchers propose a combination of five methods and three cross-validating resources.

  • Off Site

    Hulme discusses research on serious and organised crime

    28 Apr 2021

    Research leader Shann Hulme discusses her report, Mapping the Risk of Serious and Organised Crime Infiltrating Legitimate Businesses, with Paul Adamson on the Encompass podcast "In Conversation."

  • British judge with gavel and justice scales

    Project

    Liaison and Diversion services save money through reduced sentencing

    12 Apr 2021

    An evaluation of NHS England's Liaison and Diversion programme found that it successfully engages people with a broad range of vulnerabilities and halves their likelihood of receiving a custodial sentence.

  • A pack of banknotes in hand with a face value of five hundred euros, photo by Evgeny Savchenko/Adobe Stock.

    Project

    Assessing the economic value of illicit markets in the EU

    22 Mar 2021

    The aggregate annual revenues of the nine main criminal markets in the EU ranged from €92 to €188 billion in 2019, according to research that examined the scale, actors, modus operandi and trends in these markets.

  • Skull hologram on modern computer background, cybercrime and hacking concept, photo by Igor/Adobe Stock

    Project

    Technology and the future of cybercrime

    15 Dec 2020

    To prepare for and mitigate the impact of emerging technologies on cybercrime, Estonia could consider broad anti-cybercrime capacity building; seek legal, regulatory and organisational agility; and invest in technological expertise, skills and research.

  • Officer speaking with prisoner behind bars, photo by Rawpixel/Getty Images

    Commentary

    How Better Support Can Be Provided to Ex–Service Personnel in the Criminal Justice System

    30 Nov 2020

    Former armed forces personnel make up the UK's largest group of male prisoners by occupation. What can police and government do to provide targeted support in the criminal justice system to those from a military background?

  • Hand raised to stop violence, photo by artit/Adobe Stock

    Project

    What factors encourage witnesses of intimate partner violence to help?

    13 Nov 2020

    Numerous factors discourage witnesses of intimate partner violence to report to the police or other relevant authorities. Strengthening protection for witnesses and including the option to report anonymously may help encourage witnesses to help.

  • Close-up of police body camera, photo by Lutsenko Oleksandr/Adobe Stock

    Project

    Assessing the impacts of digital government transformation in the EU

    26 Jun 2020

    A case study on the use of body worn cameras by police forces in the UK offers an example of how governments can potentially take advantage of emerging digital technologies to address systemic challenges.

  • Futuristic digital business cryptocurrency candle chart, illustration by Eduard Muzhevskyi/Adobe Stock

    Project

    Exploring the criminal use of Zcash and cryptocurrencies

    06 May 2020

    While most transactions made with virtual coins are legitimate, cryptocurrencies have also been used for criminal purposes. Researchers found no evidence of widespread illicit use of Zcash, but that may be because malicious users do not fully understand its operating model.

  • Psychologist interviewing depressed patient during therapy, photo by Photographee.eu/Adobe Stock

    Project

    Youth justice practitioners' experiences and perceptions of AssetPlus

    19 Dec 2019

    An evaluation of the Youth Justice Board's AssetPlus programme found that practitioners liked the ideas underpinning the programme but felt that not all potential benefits were fully being realised. The evaluators suggested several areas for improvement.

  • Young man drawing on canvas, photo by pressmaster/Adobe Stock

    Project

    Toolkit measures intermediate outcomes to reduce reoffending

    27 Mar 2019

    For most people, desistance from crime is a process, rather an event. Researchers produced a user-friendly questionnaire that can be used by those working with offenders to capture ‘intermediate outcomes’ — indicators of positive changes which may signal progress towards an offence-free future.

  • Feyenoord fans clash with police at the Spanish Steps prior to the start of the Europa League soccer match between Roma and Feyenoord in Rome, Italy, February 19, 2015, photo by Yara Nardi/Reuters

    Commentary

    What Strategies Are the Best Defence Against Antisocial Behaviour at Football Events?

    19 Mar 2019

    Football-related violence is not going away. It is therefore more important than ever that police and football authorities have evidence on what strategies work and that they share best practices with each other.

  • Businessman and businesswoman discussing hanging paperwork in office

    Project

    Developing tools to assess research evidence for policymakers and practitioners

    01 Mar 2019

    Researchers developed recommendations for the College of Policing and the Education Endowment Foundation on how to assess evidence from research studies and make evidence-informed recommendations for practitioners and policymakers.

  • Graphic concept representing a security vulnerability search

    Project

    The economics of vulnerability disclosure

    19 Dec 2018

    Because economic incentives play a key role in whether users, vendors, finders and coordinators disclose hardware and software vulnerabilities once they have been discovered, governments should adopt a coordinated vulnerability disclosure policy.

  • Project

    Reducing violent and antisocial behaviour at football events

    11 Dec 2018

    To help Qatar prepare for upcoming sporting events, researchers examined the nature of, and the factors associated with, antisocial and violent behaviour at football matches and how effective existing approaches are in preventing and responding to these behaviours.

  • Businessman putting envelope filled with sterling in jacket pocket

    Project

    Corruption in the UK

    10 Dec 2018

    A review for the Home Office of existing research on corruption identified the key types of corruption in the law enforcement; defence; construction; and finance and property sectors. It also identified a number of gaps in the current evidence on domestic corruption and proposed ways of resolving them.

  • German riot police enter the Hamburg SV supporters' block during a break in their German Bundesliga first division soccer match against Bayern Munich in Hamburg, Germany, May 3, 2014

    Commentary

    The Rules of the Game: Reducing Antisocial Behavior and Violence at Football Events

    14 Aug 2018

    Violent behavior at football matches has garnered international media attention for decades even though the vast majority of matches pass without any significant violent incidents. Despite the widespread attention toward harmful behaviors, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of current practices targeting negative fan behavior.

  • Global internet security illustration

    Project

    Toolbox aims to support cybersecurity capacity building

    02 Aug 2018

    Using the GCSCC’s Cyber Security Capacity Maturity Model, researchers developed a proof-of-concept toolbox that presents guidelines and approaches for government officials and cybersecurity practitioners interested in cybersecurity capacity building.

  • The word 'hate' on a keyboard

    Project

    Linking hate speech online and hate crime

    06 Jul 2018

    RAND and Cardiff University are analysing online hate speech data to see if it can be used to identify areas where offline hate crimes are most likely to occur. The research aims to inform strategies to prevent and address hate crimes.

  • Opening Ceremony of the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang, South Korea, February 9, 2018

    Commentary

    Why the 2018 Winter Olympics Are the Perfect Storm for Cyberattacks

    12 Feb 2018

    The Olympic Games could invite the most severe cyber threats to a major sporting event in recent years. The location of the Games and increased connectivity, both among the public and infrastructure, make them a prime target for cyberattacks.

  • A National Health Service London ambulance drives in London, Britain, January 24, 2017

    Commentary

    Siren Song: How Ambulance Data Could Help Police Forces in England and Wales

    29 Jan 2018

    Ambulance data is a new form of intelligence which may have value for violence prevention or reduction activities. Police forces can use this data to help identify violent crime that goes unreported to police, and aid problem-solving activities to reduce and prevent violence.

  • Shiny gold Bitcoin coin with gun on black background

    Commentary

    Bitcoin and the Dark Web: The New Terrorist Threat?

    22 Jan 2018

    Bitcoin has become the prominent currency of the dark web, which is often used to buy illegal goods, such as weapons and drugs. Anecdotal evidence suggests terrorists are using cryptocurrency and the dark web, but further investigation is needed.

  • The new Smart concept autonomous car Vision EQ fortwo model is presented during the Frankfurt Motor Show (IAA) in Frankfurt, Germany, September 12, 2017

    Commentary

    Autonomous Vehicles: Terrorist Threat or Security Opportunity?

    03 Jan 2018

    Terrorist groups that track developments in technology could be considering using self-driving cars in place of suicide bombers or for ramming attacks. But autonomous vehicle capabilities offer a range of potential benefits to law enforcement and security operations, too.

  • Project

    Analysing the Reduction in First Time Entrants to the UK Youth Justice System

    15 Dec 2017

    The number of youths from England and Wales first entering the criminal justice system changed significantly between 2003 and 2015. Although it is difficult to substantiate due to lack of data, the introduction of and subsequent changes in government policies and policing practices in England and Wales during that time frame were likely to be the main causes of changes.

  • An ambulance waits next to a police car outside the emergency department at St Thomas' Hospital in central London, Britain May 12, 2017

    Commentary

    Can Ambulance Data Help Police Forces Do More with Less?

    24 Oct 2017

    Police forces in England and Wales may not be aware of a large proportion of violent incidents taking place in their areas. Ambulance data could contribute to a more complete picture of violent crime and help police target resources more effectively.