Although EU member states are generally compliant with national rules on smoke-free environments and tobacco-related advertising, some areas require closer scrutiny, including protecting children from the harms of smoking.
There is considerable variation among the criminal-history information systems of Australia, Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States regarding how they approach the collection, management, and uses of criminal-history information through their national information systems.
To capture the total volume of the illicit tobacco trade in the EU and member states, as well as distinguish between the legal and illegal market, types of tobacco products, and types of illicit trade, researchers propose a combination of five methods and three cross-validating resources.
An evaluation of NHS England's Liaison and Diversion programme found that it successfully engages people with a broad range of vulnerabilities and halves their likelihood of receiving a custodial sentence.
The aggregate annual revenues of the nine main criminal markets in the EU ranged from €92 to €188 billion in 2019, according to research that examined the scale, actors, modus operandi and trends in these markets.
To prepare for and mitigate the impact of emerging technologies on cybercrime, Estonia could consider broad anti-cybercrime capacity building; seek legal, regulatory and organisational agility; and invest in technological expertise, skills and research.
Numerous factors discourage witnesses of intimate partner violence to report to the police or other relevant authorities. Strengthening protection for witnesses and including the option to report anonymously may help encourage witnesses to help.
Researchers identified several improvements that could increase the efficacy of a programme that helps to fund projects aimed at reducing reoffending and supporting ex-Service personnel who have come into contact with the criminal justice system.
A case study on the use of body worn cameras by police forces in the UK offers an example of how governments can potentially take advantage of emerging digital technologies to address systemic challenges.
While most transactions made with virtual coins are legitimate, cryptocurrencies have also been used for criminal purposes. Researchers found no evidence of widespread illicit use of Zcash, but that may be because malicious users do not fully understand its operating model.
An evaluation of the Youth Justice Board's AssetPlus programme found that practitioners liked the ideas underpinning the programme but felt that not all potential benefits were fully being realised. The evaluators suggested several areas for improvement.
At the request of the Sentencing Council, researchers assessed whether sentencing guidelines for specific drug and theft offences in England and Wales have an impact on sentencing outcomes and whether there are any issues with their implementation.
Eight drug and alcohol recovery PbR pilots were evaluated to assess whether this new funding approach can stimulate the market to provide different services in these areas and encourage development of more effective recovery programmes.
For most people, desistance from crime is a process, rather an event. Researchers produced a user-friendly questionnaire that can be used by those working with offenders to capture ‘intermediate outcomes’ — indicators of positive changes which may signal progress towards an offence-free future.
Researchers developed recommendations for the College of Policing and the Education Endowment Foundation on how to assess evidence from research studies and make evidence-informed recommendations for practitioners and policymakers.
A key challenge in counter violent extremism evaluation is the lack of commonly agreed metrics to measure behavioural changes in people. RAND Europe researchers developed a web-based framework that lists behavioural categories, attributes, and suggested measurement tools.
Because economic incentives play a key role in whether users, vendors, finders and coordinators disclose hardware and software vulnerabilities once they have been discovered, governments should adopt a coordinated vulnerability disclosure policy.