Lower vaccination rates among Black Americans would further widen COVID-19 inequities in diagnosis, hospitalization, and mortality. But concerns about vaccine safety, mistrust of the government's transparency around COVID-19, and beliefs about racism in health care are contributing to mistrust of the vaccine.
Our study highlights that the crime-punishment wave in the 1980s and 1990s created cohort differences in incarceration over the life course that changed the level of incarceration even decades after the wave.
RAND's Center to Advance Racial Equity Policy supports a portfolio of innovative, high-impact racial equity research and analysis, creates a clearinghouse to help coordinate related efforts, and collaborates with organizations dedicated to advancing racial equity.
Low-income African Americans are a high-risk group for obstructive sleep apnea, but remain under-diagnosed and under-treated. The current findings show a high prevalence of OSA in African-American women.
Sleep is a critical contributor to health and well-being. Sleep disturbances may contribute to racial and socioeconomic disparities in health. Understanding socio-environmental determinants of sleep health disparities is a public health imperative.
Implementing a multilevel intervention across diverse congregations resulted in small improvements in obesity outcomes. A longer time line is needed to fully implement and assess effects of community and congregation environmental strategies and to allow for potential larger impacts of the intervention.
This paper utilizes comparative case methods and qualitative case data from a sample of urban congregations, and examines a range of factors to identify case scenarios associated with congregations involved in different levels of HIV activity.
We describe the rationale and design of a 2-arm cluster randomized trial to test a religiously-tailored HIV testing intervention against a standard information arm on HIV testing rates among AA church members and community members they serve.
The present systematic literature review of church-based interventions was conducted to assess their efficacy for addressing obesity across different racial/ethnic groups (eg, African Americans, Latinos).
This study explores the feasibility of using text messaging to send healthy eating and active living messages to congregants from churches whose membership were predominantly AA or Latino that participated in an intervention to address obesity.
This paper assesses community perceptions of crime and the police before and after the implementation of an intervention aimed at eliminating overt drug markets through focused deterrence and police-community partnerships emphasizing racial reconciliation.
Pittsburgh has been taking a hard look at race, wealth, and opportunity. In partnership with RAND, the city has run and published its numbers on subjects ranging from police contacts to business ownership to graduation rates as part of a commitment to do better.
Although we observed changes over time in some outcomes that we tracked, ultimately there were no significant changes related to investments above and beyond what we might have expected without those investments.
This study is among the first to examine objective and perceived assessments of neighborhood conditions in relation to objectively measured sleep in a high-risk sample of predominantly low-income, African American residents.
Text messages offer the potential to better evaluate HIV behavioral interventions using repeated longitudinal measures at lower cost and research burden. We found that using weekly automated text message surveys with short assessments was feasible with vulnerable young adults.
The 2018 Pittsburgh Equity Indicators report in enables the comparison of two years of data to measure change in disparities. The report includes information on equality scores for 2017 and 2018, as well as "change scores" between years.
The Pittsburgh Equity Indicators assess annual progress toward equitable opportunities and outcomes for Pittsburghers of all races, genders, and incomes. The 2017 report summarizes baseline equality scores, which measure disparities in Pittsburgh.
Kathryn Derose, a senior policy researcher at RAND and an Episcopal deacon, works with Latino and African-American churches to address health issues in their communities. Her research has shown the power of the pulpit to fight health disparities, counter stigma, and encourage healthy living.
The number of Medicaid recipients receiving medication to treat opioid abuse increased sharply in the years after approval of buprenorphine, but the increase was smaller in poorer counties and areas with larger populations of black and Hispanic residents.