RAND Research Topic: Chemistry2020-04-22T15:46:23ZCopyright (c) 2020, The RAND CorporationRAND Corporationhttps://www.rand.org/topics/chemistry.htmlOsmotic Shock and the Strength of Viral CapsidsAmado Cordova; Markus Deserno; William M. Gelbart; Avinoam Ben-Shaulhttps://www.rand.org/pubs/external_publications/EP51441.html2003-07-01T09:00:00Z2003-07-01T09:00:00ZOsmotic shock is a familiar means for rupturing viral capsids and exposing their genomes intact.Zenith-sky Observations of Stratospheric GasesMatt Bassford; Chris A. McLinden; Kimberly Stronghttps://www.rand.org/pubs/external_publications/EP51374.html2001-03-01T09:00:00Z2001-03-01T09:00:00ZThe retrieval of accurate vertical column amounts of stratospheric constituents from zenith-sky spectroscopy is dependent on accurately modeling the transfer of radiation through the atmosphere and calculating suitable air mass factors (AMFs).Anticipating Technological Change: Combinatorial Chemistry and the EnvironmentSusan A. Resetar; Elisa Eiseman; David Rejeskihttps://www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/MR1394z0.html2001-01-01T09:01:41Z2001-01-01T09:01:41ZAnticipating Technological Change: Combinatorial Chemistry and the EnvironmentSeparation of Hydrohalocarbons and Chlorofluorocarbons Using a Cyclodextrin Gas Solid Chromatography Capillary ColumnSimon J. O'Doherty; Graham Nickles; Matt Bassford; M. Pajot; Peter G. Simmondshttps://www.rand.org/pubs/external_publications/EP51375.html1999-01-01T09:00:00Z1999-01-01T09:00:00ZChromatographic analysis of very volatile hydrohalocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons has proved to be a difficult task due to the generally poor retention of these compounds on commercially available wall coated open tubular capillary columns.Chemical Equilibrium Problems with Unbounded Constraint Sets.James H. Bigelow; James C. DeHaven; Norman Shapirohttps://www.rand.org/pubs/research_memoranda/RM5952.html1969-12-31T21:00:00Z1969-12-31T21:00:00ZAn investigation of the use of mathematical models to explore the chemical aspects of physiological systems; this deals with the theoretical and computational aspects of understanding the chemistry of human physiological function. The question of ex...Lower Bounds to the Critical Rayleigh Number in Completely Confined RegionsMichael Sherman; Simon Ostrachhttps://www.rand.org/pubs/external_publications/EP19670602.html1966-12-31T21:00:00Z1966-12-31T21:00:00ZMinimum Rayleigh number that will induce a state of convective motion in a Boussinesq fluid where temperature gradient is in direction of body force.Ion Chemistry Governing Mesospheric Electron Densities.Robert LeLevier; Lewis M. Branscombhttps://www.rand.org/pubs/papers/P3691.html1966-12-31T21:00:00Z1966-12-31T21:00:00ZAn investigation of the physicochemical processes governing electron density in the earth's mesosphere. Ionization results from the weak background cosmic radiation, daytime solar X rays, and special events, and is ordinarily detected by its effect ...Protein Binding of Small Ions--A Mathematical Model of Serum Albumin.Edward Charles DeLand; R. M. Heirschfeldthttps://www.rand.org/pubs/research_memoranda/RM5254.html1966-12-31T21:00:00Z1966-12-31T21:00:00ZExamines the role of serum albumin in blood chemistry with respect to the binding of hydrogen, chloride, and calcium. Serum albumin is considered as a mathematical entity. Emphasis is on the interpretation of binding data using the Linderstrom-Lang...Acid-Base Metabolism and the Proton Condition.C. D. Russellhttps://www.rand.org/pubs/research_memoranda/RM5451.html1966-12-31T21:00:00Z1966-12-31T21:00:00ZApplication of the proton condition of inorganic chemistry to the problem of describing the net acid content in a biological system. A "proton content" is defined that expresses the net acid content in terms of the detailed chemical composition of t...Bands of D2 and T2 Originating from the Lowest Excited 1sigma G States (1s) Sigma)(2s Sigma)1sigma G and (2p) Sigma) Squared 1sigma GGerhard Heinrich Dieke; Samuel P. Cunninghamhttps://www.rand.org/pubs/external_publications/EP19651101.html1964-12-31T21:00:00Z1964-12-31T21:00:00ZBands of the two extensive band systems are presented.Numerical Solution of Functional Equations by Means of Laplace Transform--III : The Diffusion Equation.Richard Ernest Bellman; Robert E. Kalaba; Jo Ann Locketthttps://www.rand.org/pubs/research_memoranda/RM3974.html1963-12-31T21:00:00Z1963-12-31T21:00:00ZOne of the fundamental equations of chemistry and biology is the heat or diffusion equation. A new method for its numerical integration is presented, which hinges on the numerical inversion of Laplace transforms. One advantage over the usual finite...Radiative Equilibrium of the Mesosphere.Conway B. Leovyhttps://www.rand.org/pubs/papers/P2833.html1962-12-31T21:00:00Z1962-12-31T21:00:00ZResults of joint photochemical-radiative equilibrium calculations for the mesosphere and upper stratosphere. Major assumptions are that only oxygen allotropes participate in the chemistry and that the radiative balance is between absorption of solar ...The Response Time of the Lower Ionosphere to a Pulse of Ionization.Robert LeLevierhttps://www.rand.org/pubs/research_memoranda/RM3204.html1961-12-31T21:00:00Z1961-12-31T21:00:00ZA discussion of the recovery time of ionization in the low ionosphere (60- to 100-km altitude). It is known that both the local air chemistry and the level of ambient ionization affect the lifetime of free electrons in the ionosphere. The model for t...