Corona Virus


COVID-19 is a respiratory illness caused by a novel coronavirus first identified in late 2019. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is disrupting nearly every facet of daily life and claiming lives across the globe.

As leaders grapple with how to respond, RAND experts seek to address and inform policy options and examine how different countries and communities are managing the crisis. Topics include health care capacity, telemedicine, social distancing, countering misinformation, economic effects, school closures, and online learning.

  • A collage of the COVID-19 virus, armed terror groups, and a biological response team


    Implications of the Pandemic for Terrorist Interest in Biological Weapons

    May 31, 2022

    Some policymakers and analysts have expressed concern that weaknesses in responses to the COVID-19 pandemic will motivate terrorists to seek biological weapons. While the prospect of the Islamic State and al-Qaeda pursuing biological weapons is not zero, it is unlikely, given the difficulties involved and the availability of simpler alternatives.

  • Medical staff members in an intensive care unit assist a patient suffering from COVID-19, Amman, Jordan March 23, 2021, photo by Muath Freij/Reuters


    Exploration of Early COVID-19 Responses in Select Middle East Nations

    Mar 24, 2022

    Prior to the pandemic, many countries in the Middle East struggled with health care capacity and access. COVID-19 placed significant additional strain on health care delivery in the region. What common challenges did Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Qatar, and Tunisia face in their pandemic responses?

Explore Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

  • Health care workers prepare to receive walk-up patients at a coronavirus testing center at UMC Hospital in Washington, April 6, 2020, photo by Jonathan Ernst/Reuters


    Learning, Relearning, and Not Learning the Lessons of COVID-19

    Several recent announcements have demonstrated how little has been learned from the response to the COVID-19 pandemic, and the potential need for a national reckoning to assess shortfalls and develop recommendations for preparing for and responding to future pandemics and other biological risks. To this end, the United States should create a national commission—not unlike the 9/11 Commission—to develop a way forward.

    Aug 12, 2022

  • Stressed-looking male teacher leaning against a desk with one hand on his forehead, photo by SolStock/Getty Images


    Educators' Poor Morale Matters, Even If They Don't Quit. Here's Why

    State and district education leaders can take steps now to reduce teacher principal stress this fall in two ways: Recognize that job-related stress is systemic and that educators closer to the classroom may experience more of it, and talk with teachers and principals about the sources of stress in their job, and what could alleviate them.

    Aug 11, 2022

  • Andrew Briscoe Elementary School's principal greets and distributes hand sanitizer to students while a teacher takes their temperature before they enter the building, in San Antonio, Texas, January 11, 2022, photo by Kaylee Greenlee Beal/Reuters


    Educators' Views on Politicized Topics in School

    A survey in January 2022 asked educators about policies for COVID-19 safety in schools and classroom conversations about race, racism, or bias. Almost half of principals and 40 percent of teachers reported that the intrusion of political issues and opinions added stress to their jobs.

    Aug 10, 2022

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    Journal Article

    Playing Defense? Health Care in the Era of Covid

    This paper presents evidence that the quality of health care interactions changed in important ways during the early months of the Covid-19 pandemic.

    Jul 28, 2022

  • Covid-19 Prevention Opener B101 Crop


    Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy with Research

    RAND senior physician policy researcher Courtney Gidengil reveals the biggest driver behind the hesitancy to receive the COVID-19 vaccine.

    Jul 26, 2022

  • A woman holding her baby in her arms looks at a view of Seoul shrouded by fine dust during a polluted day in Seoul, South Korea, March 5, 2019, photo by Kim Hong-ji/Reuters


    South Korea's Extraordinary Fertility Decline

    The complicated history of family planning as well as socioeconomic and political factors may all play roles in depressing birth rates in South Korea. But the nation's fertility decline is just one piece in a complicated gender puzzle.

    Jul 22, 2022

  • Blog

    U.S. Labor Market, 988 Hotline, Firearm Homicides: RAND Weekly Recap

    This weekly recap focuses on the U.S. economy’s uneven pandemic recovery, a new national mental health hotline, firearm homicides, and more.

    Jul 22, 2022

  • People wearing face masks walk past shops amid the COVID-19 outbreak in the Old City of Tunis, Tunisia, August 3, 2021, photo by Ammar Awad/Reuters


    Tunisia: Challenges and Successes in COVID-19 Pandemic Response

    Tunisia's response to the COVID pandemic has been spotty, though vaccination rates have improved and mortality rates have dropped. When the political instability is factored in, Tunisia's emergence from the pandemic may not be quick.

    Jul 22, 2022

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    Journal Article

    Assessing the Implementation of Digital Innovations in Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic to Address Key Public Health Functions: Scoping Review of Academic and Nonacademic Literature

    In this study, scoping reviews of academic and nonacademic literature were undertaken to obtain an overview of the evidence regarding digital innovations implemented to address key public health functions in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Jul 21, 2022

  • Students making their way through a hallway at Ridgeview STEM Junior High in Pickerington, Ohio, December 21, 2021, photo by Shane Flanigan/USA Today via Reuters


    School Districts Still Struggled in Year Three of the Pandemic

    Ninety percent of school districts changed operations in 2021–2022 because of teacher shortages. They increased substitute teacher pay and their number of staff above prepandemic levels. They also struggled with political polarization around critical race theory, student and staff mental health, and student learning loss.

    Jul 19, 2022

  • Wilcox Academy owner Rochelle Wilcox (L) speaks with teacher Briceshanay Gresham as childcare centers struggle to hire staff in New Orleans, Louisiana, August 24, 2021, photo by Kathleen Flynn/Reuters


    U.S. Jobs Rebounded, but Not for Everyone

    The U.S. labor market is on track to hit a milestone this month or next: It will have recovered all of the jobs lost in the pandemic recession. But the pandemic recession and its recovery treated men and women differently, and treated women of color differently from white women.

    Jul 18, 2022

  • Southeastern Regional Superintendent Luis Lopes enters a special school committee meeting for superintendent candidates on April 5, 2022, photo by Marc Vasconcellos/USA Today via Reuters


    Superintendents Have High Job Satisfaction and Normal Turnover Rates

    Although 95 percent of superintendents agreed that their job has gotten harder over the past decade, 85 percent of them were satisfied with their job as of spring 2022. The rate of those planning to leave their positions is on par with prepandemic levels.

    Jul 12, 2022

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    Technical Documentation for the Fifth American School District Panel Survey

    This report provides technical information about the spring 2022 survey of the American School District Panel. The authors describe the survey administration and weighting processes they used to produce nationally representative estimates.

    Jul 12, 2022

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    American School District Panel Interactive Survey Results Tool: Spring 2022 COVID-19 Survey Results

    This tool allows users to compare superintendents' responses to the final section of the spring 2022 survey. Charts display results for all respondents and by district type, locale, student race and ethnicity, and district poverty level.

    Jul 12, 2022

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    RAND Review: July-August 2022

    Features explore environmental racism; the economic value to the UK of improving languages education in schools; and causes of civilian harm in Raqqa, Syria, and ways to reduce civilian casualties in current and future military operations.

    Jul 8, 2022

  • Blog

    Overturning Roe, a New Mental Health Hotline, Russia: RAND Weekly Recap

    This weekly recap focuses on how repealing Roe v. Wade could affect women in the military, whether America is prepared to launch a new emergency mental health hotline, Russia's war in Ukraine, and more.

    Jul 1, 2022

  • Journal Article

    Journal Article

    US Health Care Workforce Changes During the First and Second Years of the COVID-19 Pandemic

    Health care employment levels declined from 22.2 million in 2019 to 21.1 million, in 2020 but rebounded to 21.8 million in second quarter of 2021.

    Jun 22, 2022

  • Journal Article

    Journal Article

    American Single Father Homes: A Growing Public Health Priority

    This commentary highlights the need for public health, child welfare and healthcare to pay more attention to fathers and their role in parenting/child development.

    Jun 22, 2022

  • A man waits for the subway at the Times Square stop in New York, December 19, 2012, photo by Andrew Burton/Reuters


    How Available and Accessible Are Mental Health Services in NYC?

    Across the United States and in New York City in particular, the use of mental health services is low and care is not equitably distributed. Non-Hispanic white individuals are more likely to seek care than non-Hispanic Black or Hispanic individuals. Provider shortages and a lack of integration across service settings are two barriers, and COVID-19 exacerbated these challenges.

    Jun 22, 2022

  • People wait to have their Iftar meals during the holy month of Ramadan in Amman, Jordan, April 9, 2022, photo by Muath Freij/Reuters


    Jordan: Challenges and Successes in COVID-19 Pandemic Response

    Lockdown restrictions that may have contributed to low COVID-19 case numbers in Jordan early in the pandemic resulted in economic stresses and increased psychological distress in the general population. RAND researchers identified challenges faced by Jordanians during the crisis and the country's innovative and equitable response to mitigate them.

    Jun 20, 2022