Cyber Warfare


Cyber warfare involves the actions by a nation-state or international organization to attack and attempt to damage another nation's computers or information networks through, for example, computer viruses or denial-of-service attacks. RAND research provides recommendations to military and civilian decisionmakers on methods of defending against the damaging effects of cyber warfare on a nation's digital infrastructure.

  • Accountability in Cyberspace: The Problem of Attribution


    How to Achieve Accountability in Cyberspace

    Jan 13, 2019

    Identifying the responsible party behind malicious cyber incidents is necessary for holding bad actors accountable. But there are many challenges that accompany cyber attribution. Creating an independent, global organization that investigates and publicly assigns blame for major hacks could help.

  • Russian President Vladimir Putin chairs a meeting with members of the Security Council at the Kremlin in Moscow, Russia, April 5, 2019, photo by Sputnik/Kremlin/Alexei Druzhinin via Reuters


    Mueller Report May Result in Russian Sanctions but Not Better Behavior

    Apr 26, 2019

    The Mueller report could help mobilize political pressure in the United States for a stronger posture toward Russian activities that harm American and allied interests. But the Kremlin will likely still see propaganda, disinformation, and subterfuge as useful tools to undermine America's values and cohesion.

Explore Cyber Warfare

  • Commercial Book

    Conquest in Cyberspace: National Security and Information Warfare

    Explores the potential for and limitations to information warfare, including its use in weapons systems and in command-and-control operations as well as in the generation of ''noise'' and how far ''friendly conquest'' in cyberspace extends.

    May 12, 2007

  • News Release

    RAND Launches National Computer Security Survey for Departments of Justice and Homeland Security

    On behalf of the U.S. Departments of Justice and Homeland Security, the RAND Corporation is fielding the first national survey to measure the impact of cybercrime on American businesses.

    May 2, 2006

  • Journal Article

    Canada Aims to Close the USA's Electron Backdoor

    The threat of crossborder cyberattacks into the USA is focusing attention on the electronic security of its northern neighbour.

    Dec 31, 2001

  • Cyber terrorist


    Networks and Netwars

    The concepts of cyberwar and netwar encompass a new spectrum of conflict emerging in the wake of the information revolution. To confront this type of conflict, it is crucial for governments, military, and law enforcement to begin networking themselves.

    Jan 1, 2001

  • Report

    The Zapatista "Social Netwar" in Mexico

    The Zapatista movement in Mexico is a seminal case of a new mode of conflict -- netwar -- in which the protagonists depend on using network forms of organization, doctrine, strategy, and technology.

    Jan 1, 1998

  • Report

    The Advent Of Netwar

    This report examines how netwar, due to the evolution of societies according to a framework presented by the authors, may be the dominant mode of societal conflict in the 21st century.

    Jan 1, 1996

  • Report

    Security in Cyberspace: Challenges for Society: Proceedings of an International Conference

    Topics covered include the magnitude of the cyberspace security threat and the threat's consequences; impediments to improved security in cyberspace and what must be done to remove them; ...

    Dec 31, 1995

  • Report

    Security in Cyberspace: An Emerging Challenge for Society

    This paper attempts to structure the discussion the potential threats from bad actors in cyberspace.

    Dec 31, 1993

  • Content

    Lillian Ablon

    Adjunct Information Scientist
    Education M.S. in mathematics, Johns Hopkins University; B.A. in mathematics, University of California, Berkeley

  • Content

    Jair Aguirre

    Senior Technical Analyst; Professor, Pardee RAND Graduate School
    Education M.S. in applied economics, Johns Hopkins University; B.S. in liberal studies, Excelsior College; A.A. in modern standard Arabic, Defense Language Institute; A.S. in communications applications technology, Community College of the Air Force

  • Content

    Brien Alkire

    Senior Researcher; Professor, Pardee RAND Graduate School
    Education Ph.D. in electrical engineering, University of California, Los Angeles

  • Content

    Joe Cheravitch

    Defense Analyst
    Education M.S. in foreign service, Georgetown University; B.A. in international studies, Bowling Green University; B.A. in Russian, Bowling Green University

  • Content

    John S. Davis, II

    Senior Information Scientist; Professor, Pardee RAND Graduate School; Co-Director, Center for Scalable Computing and Analysis
    Education B.S. in electrical engineering, Howard University; Ph.D. in electrical engineering, University of California, Berkeley

  • Content

    Cynthia Dion-Schwarz

    Senior Scientist; Professor, Pardee RAND Graduate School
    Education Ph.D. in physics, University of Maryland; B.S. in physics, George Mason University

  • Content

    Paul Dreyer

    Senior Mathematician; Professor, Pardee RAND Graduate School
    Education Ph.D. in mathematics, Rutgers University; B.S. in mathematics and history, Duke University

  • Content

    Damien Baveye

    Assistant Policy Researcher; Ph.D. Candidate, Pardee RAND Graduate School
    Education B.S. in political science, United States Naval Academy

  • Content

    Sina Beaghley

    Senior International/Defense Policy Researcher
    Education M.A. in international affairs/international security, George Washington University; B.A. in political science/media communications, University of San Diego

  • Content

    Elizabeth Bodine-Baron

    Information Scientist; Associate Director, Force Modernization and Employment Program, Project Air Force; Co-Director, RAND Center for Applied Network Analysis and System Science
    Education Ph.D., M.S. in electrical engineering, California Institute of Technology; B.S. in electrical engineering, University of Texas at Austin; B.A. in liberal arts, University of Texas at Austin

  • Content

    Benjamin Boudreaux

    Senior Policy Analyst; Professor, Pardee RAND Graduate School
    Education Ph.D. in philosophy, University of California at Berkeley; M.S. in foreign service, Georgetown University; B.A. in economics and philosophy, New York University

  • Content

    Hannah Jane Byrne

    Defense Analyst
    Education M.A. in security studies, Georgetown University; B.A. in political science, Johns Hopkins University