Cyber Warfare


Cyber warfare involves the actions by a nation-state or international organization to attack and attempt to damage another nation's computers or information networks through, for example, computer viruses or denial-of-service attacks. RAND research provides recommendations to military and civilian decisionmakers on methods of defending against the damaging effects of cyber warfare on a nation's digital infrastructure.

  • Accountability in Cyberspace: The Problem of Attribution


    How to Achieve Accountability in Cyberspace

    Jan 13, 2019

    Identifying the responsible party behind malicious cyber incidents is necessary for holding bad actors accountable. But there are many challenges that accompany cyber attribution. Creating an independent, global organization that investigates and publicly assigns blame for major hacks could help.

  • Russian President Vladimir Putin chairs a meeting with members of the Security Council at the Kremlin in Moscow, Russia, April 5, 2019, photo by Sputnik/Kremlin/Alexei Druzhinin via Reuters


    Mueller Report May Result in Russian Sanctions but Not Better Behavior

    Apr 26, 2019

    The Mueller report could help mobilize political pressure in the United States for a stronger posture toward Russian activities that harm American and allied interests. But the Kremlin will likely still see propaganda, disinformation, and subterfuge as useful tools to undermine America's values and cohesion.

Explore Cyber Warfare

  • Content

    Richard Flint

    Education M.Sci. in physics, Imperial College London; M.A. in terrorism, security and society, Kings College London

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    David R. Frelinger

    Senior Policy Researcher; Professor, Pardee RAND Graduate School
    Education M.A. in political science, University of California, Los Angeles; B.A. in political science, University of California, San Diego

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    Jon Fujiwara

    Technical Analyst, IV
    Education B.S. in chemistry, US Naval Academy

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    Henry Hargrove

    Technical Analyst
    Education Bachelor of Science in applied physics, Carnegie Mellon University; Master of Engineering Management in statistical process control, Old Dominion University

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    Quentin E. Hodgson

    Senior International / Defense Researcher
    Education B.A. in History and Russian Language, The Johns Hopkins University; M.A. in international relations, The Johns Hopkins University - School of Advanced International Studies; M.Sc. in national resource management, Industrial College of the Armed Forces

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    Pavan Katkar

    Assistant Policy Researcher; Ph.D. Candidate, Pardee RAND Graduate School
    Education M.A. in science and security, King's College London; B.E. in information science, National Institute of Engineering, India

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    Omair Khan

    Assistant Policy Researcher, RAND; Ph.D. Candidate, Pardee RAND Graduate School
    Education M.P.P., University of Michigan; B.S. in economics, Georgia State University

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    Mary Lee

    Education Ph.D. in mathematics, University of California, Irvine

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    Bilyana Lilly

    Assistant Policy Researcher, Ph.D. Candidate, Pardee RAND Graduate School
    Education M.Sc. in Russian and East European studies, University of Oxford; M.A. in international affairs, Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies (IHEID) Switzerland; B.A. in international politics and history, Jacobs University, Germany

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    Andrew J. Lohn

    Information Scientist; Professor, Pardee RAND Graduate School
    Education Ph.D. in electrical engineering, University of California Santa Cruz; B.Eng. in engineering physics, McMaster University

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    Lindsey Polley

    Assistant Policy Researcher; Ph.D. Candidate, Pardee RAND Graduate School
    Education Certificate in counter terrorism theory, University of Leiden; M.P.A. in public administration, California State University, San Bernardino; B.A. in Chicana/Chicano studies, University of California at Davis

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    Lauren A. Mayer

    Senior Policy Researcher
    Education Ph.D. in engineering and public policy, Carnegie Mellon University; M.Sc. in environmental sciences and engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; B.Sc. in mathematics; environmental policy, American University

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    Bruce McClintock

    Adjunct Policy Analyst
    Education M.S. in aeronautical engineering, University of Florida; M.S. in airpower art and science, School of Advanced Airpower Studies; B.S. in astronautical engineering, United States Air Force Academy

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    Shawn McKay

    Senior Engineer; Professor, Pardee RAND Graduate School
    Education Ph.D. in mechanical engineering, Purdue University; B.S. in mechanical engineering, Arizona State University

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    Igor Mikolic-Torreira

    Senior Fellow; Affiliate Faculty, Pardee RAND Graduate School
    Education Ph.D. in mathematics, California Institute of Technology; B.A. in mathematics, Sacred Heart University

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    Caolionn O'Connell

    Senior Physical Scientist
    Education Ph.D. in physics, Stanford University; B.A. in physics, Harvard University

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    Lara Schmidt

    Director, Strategy, Policy, and Operations Program, Homeland Security Operational Analysis Center (HSOAC); Senior Statistician
    Education Ph.D. in statistics, American University; M.S. in mathematics, West Virginia University; B.S. in mathematics, Shepherd College

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    Karen Elise Schwindt

    Policy Analyst
    Education M.A. in international affairs, George Washington University; B.A. in political science, University of Oregon; B.A. in history, University of Oregon

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    Erik Silfversten

    Senior Analyst
    Education M.Sci. in international relations and global issues, University of Nottingham

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    Don Snyder

    Senior Physical Scientist
    Education Ph.D. in geology, University of California, Berkeley; B.A. in geology, Franklin and Marshall College; B.A. in mathematics, Franklin and Marshall College