Cyber Warfare


Cyber warfare involves the actions by a nation-state or international organization to attack and attempt to damage another nation's computers or information networks through, for example, computer viruses or denial-of-service attacks. RAND research provides recommendations to military and civilian decisionmakers on methods of defending against the damaging effects of cyber warfare on a nation's digital infrastructure.

  • Accountability in Cyberspace: The Problem of Attribution


    How to Achieve Accountability in Cyberspace

    Jan 13, 2019

    Identifying the responsible party behind malicious cyber incidents is necessary for holding bad actors accountable. But there are many challenges that accompany cyber attribution. Creating an independent, global organization that investigates and publicly assigns blame for major hacks could help.

  • Cyber grenade


    Getting Ready to Fight the Next (Cyber) War

    Mar 3, 2018

    Nation-states and their proxies are regularly spying and attacking in cyberspace across national borders. Western societies that are being targeted should do three things: Be less vulnerable, be able to recognize and mitigate the impact of attacks faster, and be prepared to respond in kind to all levels of offense.

Explore Cyber Warfare

  • Content

    Henry Hargrove

    Technical Analyst
    Education Bachelor of Science in applied physics, Carnegie Mellon University; Master of Engineering Management in statistical process control, Old Dominion University

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    Quentin E. Hodgson

    Senior International / Defense Researcher
    Education B.A. in History and Russian Language, The Johns Hopkins University; M.A. in international relations, The Johns Hopkins University - School of Advanced International Studies; M.Sc. in national resource management, Industrial College of the Armed Forces

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    Pavan Katkar

    Assistant Policy Researcher; Ph.D. Candidate, Pardee RAND Graduate School
    Education M.A. in science and security, King's College London; B.E. in information science, National Institute of Engineering, India

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    Omair Khan

    Assistant Policy Researcher, RAND; Ph.D. Candidate, Pardee RAND Graduate School
    Education M.P.P., University of Michigan; B.S. in economics, Georgia State University

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    Mary Lee

    Education Ph.D. in mathematics, University of California, Irvine

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    Andrew J. Lohn

    Information Scientist; Professor, Pardee RAND Graduate School
    Education Ph.D. in electrical engineering, University of California Santa Cruz; B.Eng. in engineering physics, McMaster University

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    Lauren A. Mayer

    Senior Policy Researcher
    Education Ph.D. in engineering and public policy, Carnegie Mellon University; M.Sc. in environmental sciences and engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; B.Sc. in mathematics; environmental policy, American University

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    Bruce McClintock

    Adjunct Policy Analyst
    Education M.S. in aeronautical engineering, University of Florida; M.S. in airpower art and science, School of Advanced Airpower Studies; B.S. in astronautical engineering, United States Air Force Academy

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    Shawn McKay

    Senior Engineer; Professor, Pardee RAND Graduate School
    Education Ph.D. in mechanical engineering, Purdue University; B.S. in mechanical engineering, Arizona State University

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    Igor Mikolic-Torreira

    Senior Fellow; Affiliate Faculty, Pardee RAND Graduate School
    Education Ph.D. in mathematics, California Institute of Technology; B.A. in mathematics, Sacred Heart University

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    Hilary Reininger

    Assistant Policy Researcher; Ph.D. Candidate, Pardee RAND Graduate School
    Education M.S. in conflict analysis and resolution, George Mason University; B.A. in Middle East studies and Arabic, Brigham Young University

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    James Ryseff

    Technical Analyst
    Education M.S. in security studies, Georgetown University; B.S. in computer science, University of Illinois

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    Lara Schmidt

    Director, Strategy, Policy, and Operations Program, Homeland Security Operational Analysis Center (HSOAC); Senior Statistician
    Education Ph.D. in statistics, American University; M.S. in mathematics, West Virginia University; B.S. in mathematics, Shepherd College

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    Karen Elise Schwindt

    Policy Analyst
    Education M.A. in international affairs, George Washington University; B.A. in political science, University of Oregon; B.A. in history, University of Oregon

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    Erik Silfversten

    Senior Analyst
    Education M.Sci. in international relations and global issues, University of Nottingham

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    Don Snyder

    Senior Physical Scientist
    Education Ph.D. in geology, University of California, Berkeley; B.A. in geology, Franklin and Marshall College; B.A. in mathematics, Franklin and Marshall College

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    Sarah Soliman

    Technical Analyst
    Education M.Phil. in technology policy, University of Cambridge; B.S. in computer engineering, West Virginia University; B.S. in biometric systems, West Virginia University

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    Danielle C. Tarraf

    Senior Information Scientist
    Education Ph.D. in mechanical engineering (control theory), MIT; S.M. in mechanical engineering, MIT; B.E. in mechanical engineering, American University of Beirut

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    Bonnie L. Triezenberg

    Senior Engineer
    Education Ph.D. in policy analysis, Pardee RAND Graduate School; M.S. in systems science, University of California-Los Angeles; B.S. in aerospace engineering, University of Michigan

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    Caolionn O'Connell

    Senior Physical Scientist
    Education Ph.D. in physics, Stanford University; B.A. in physics, Harvard University