Cybersecurity

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Technology allows individuals and organizations access to more comprehensive and diverse information, but this access requires that electronic information, networks, data repositories, and data transmissions be adequately safeguarded. RAND has developed a large body of research focused on recognizing the potential threats to information security and data integrity, as well as implications for personal and institutional privacy.

  • Blue and red cables transmitting data signals, image by Alexey Novikov/Adobe Stock

    Report

    Response Options to Cyberattacks on U.S. Government Networks

    Apr 29, 2022

    The United States has proved vulnerable to cyber incidents, and a lack of response has emboldened Russia and China to expand their cyber espionage activities. Have U.S. responses changed over time or affected adversary behavior? What lessons do these cases offer for future policymaking?

  • Red world map with areas circled, illustration by traffic_analyzer/Getty Images

    Report

    Competition and Restraint in Cyberspace

    Mar 7, 2022

    Recent years have seen a mounting concern in the United States over foreign efforts to harm election security or legitimacy through cyber means, an increase in cyber espionage, and attacks of growing sophistication. How could international norms help constrain such destabilizing behavior in cyberspace?

Explore Cybersecurity

  • A screen, showing Russian President Vladimir Putin's annual end-of-year news conference, is on display in Simferopol, Crimea, December 23, 2016.

    Commentary

    Russia in Action, Short of War

    The West needs to work more quickly and coordinate better to offset Russia's capabilities, aggressiveness, and success. Responding to Russia's hostile influence involves predicting Russia's targets, identifying the tools it's likely to use, and playing the long game rather than focusing on near-term events.

    May 9, 2017

  • Russian President Vladimir Putin is reflected in the glasses of a cadet watching Putin on TV at a military school outside Rostov-on-Don, Russia, December 20, 2012

    Testimony

    The Need for Cognitive Security

    The United States needs a strategy to counter information operations conducted by Russia and other adversaries. The rapid evolution of technology complicates this challenge.

    Apr 27, 2017

  • The 24-hour Operations Room inside GCHQ, Cheltenham, UK, November 17, 2015

    Commentary

    Five Eyes at 70: Where to from Here?

    The Five Eyes intelligence alliance of the U.S., Canada, Great Britain, Australia, and New Zealand began in the Cold War to meet the threat posed by the Soviet Union. Today, the nations' intelligence communities must contend with domestic terrorism and cyber threats while remaining ahead of Russia and China.

    Apr 21, 2017

  • A person typing on a computer keyboard in a dark room

    Commentary

    Are Terrorists Using Cryptocurrencies?

    As the U.S. Treasury Department and its partners have denied terrorists access to the international financial system, new digital currencies could become an attractive alternative. They could be used for money laundering or to pay the personnel and vendors that keep the terrorist machine running.

    Apr 21, 2017

  • World map

    Commentary

    Why It's So Hard to Stop a Cyberattack — and Even Harder to Fight Back

    Cyber weapons attack the underlying network or computer systems. The possibility of unexpected effects in the cyber world is therefore greater than in conventional warfare. Not knowing if the effects were intentional complicates the response.

    Mar 30, 2017

  • A coder types on laptop keyboard

    Commentary

    Reining in Internet Abuse

    The internet is being used for harmful, unethical, and illegal purposes. Examples include incitement and recruitment by terrorists, cyber bullying, and malicious fake news. Americans say they are unhappy with the tone of the online discourse, but are reluctant to consider potential remedies.

    Mar 23, 2017

  • News Release

    News Release

    RAND Study Examines 200 Real-World 'Zero-Day' Software Vulnerabilities

    Zero-day software vulnerabilities—security holes that developers haven't fixed or aren't aware of—can lurk undetected for years. They are useful in cyber operations and in defensive and academic settings. Whether to disclose or stockpile them is an ongoing debate.

    Mar 9, 2017

  • Composite image of binary code on a sunset over water

    Report

    The Life and Times of Zero-Day Software Vulnerabilities

    Zero-day software vulnerabilities—security holes that developers haven't fixed or aren't aware of—can lurk undetected for years. They are useful in cyber operations and in defensive and academic settings. Whether to disclose or stockpile them is an ongoing debate.

    Mar 8, 2017

  • U.S. Army soldiers take part in a multi-service exercise on cyber capabilities at Ford Gordon in Augusta, Georgia, June 10, 2014

    Testimony

    Effective Cyberdeterrence Takes More Than Offensive Capability

    A successful cyberdeterrence posture has many prerequisites. These include attributing attacks to the correct party, thresholds for what merits retaliation, credibility, and offensive capability. For the United States, capability is the least in doubt.

    Mar 1, 2017

  • Cyber gavel illustration

    Commentary

    Does the Court System Know as Much About ESI as Your Teenager? It Should.

    Electronically stored information (ESI) from smart appliances, fitness trackers, and other devices is making its way into the U.S. court system. Judges and lawyers need to better understand this evidence so they can challenge it or rule on its admissibility in court.

    Feb 21, 2017

  • Binary code bursts from phones held by a crowd of people with an overlay of glowing electronic numbers

    Commentary

    What Is the Adversary Likely to Do with the Clearance Records for 20 Million Americans?

    The state actor that hacked the Office of Personnel Management could use the stolen information to further its domestic control against dissidents, enhance its foreign intelligence, and improve its position in the global military and economic order.

    Jan 20, 2017

  • Report

    Report

    A Framework for Exploring Cybersecurity Policy Options

    RAND conducted two discovery games to explore possible solutions for improving cybersecurity, assess their implications, and develop an initial framework to support debate and inform decisions regarding cybersecurity policies and practices.

    Nov 23, 2016

  • Illustration of a digital world

    Commentary

    Where Next for the Digital Society?

    Digital technologies are omnipresent, both in terms of where we are and what we do. A digital society can bring about economic and societal gain, but there are many challenges that need to be addressed beyond the actual technologies.

    Oct 14, 2016

  • Report

    Report

    Thought Leadership programme 2016: Key Findings

    Key findings from the 2016 Thought Leadership Programme, convened by Corsham Institute in conjunction with RAND Europe and St George's House exploring opportunities and challenges created by digital technologies in society.

    Oct 13, 2016

  • Concept of leaky software, data pouring out of pipe

    Commentary

    Digital Theft: The New Normal

    Absolute data breach prevention is not possible, so knowing what people want when it happens is important. Consumers and corporations alike should accept this risk as a “when,” not an “if,” and prepare for it.

    Oct 10, 2016

  • Woman paying a cashier with a credit card

    Journal Article

    Cost of Cyber Incidents to American Companies Is Less Than Expected

    Why don't American companies invest more in computer security? One possible explanation: Relative to the other risks they face, cyber risks often aren't as significant as expected. Most breaches cost companies less than 0.4 percent of their annual revenues.

    Oct 10, 2016

  • News Release

    News Release

    Ukraine's Security Sector Needs Substantial Reform

    An assessment of Ukraine's security sector determines what different institutions need to do and where gaps exist. Roles and responsibilities need to be clarified, and coordination is needed among individual ministries and agencies.

    Oct 5, 2016

  • Ukrainian servicemen take part in a rehearsal for the Independence Day military parade in central Kiev, Ukraine, August 22, 2016

    Report

    Security Sector Reform in Ukraine

    The 2014 Maidan revolution created an opportunity for change in a system that had resisted it for 25 years. The Ukrainian security establishment has progressed since then, but its efforts have been insufficient to address the threats now facing the nation.

    Oct 5, 2016

  • TSA agents screen a passenger at San Francisco International Airport in San Francisco, California, February 27, 2015

    Announcement

    RAND Chosen to Operate New Research Center for U.S. Department of Homeland Security

    A new center will conduct analyses and make recommendations to strengthen DHS across its missions to prevent terrorism and enhance security, secure and manage U.S. borders, enforce and administer immigration laws, safeguard and secure cyberspace, and strengthen national preparedness and resiliency.

    Oct 4, 2016

  • The headquarters of the Democratic National Committee is seen in Washington, D.C., June 14, 2016

    Commentary

    The DNC Hack: Are New Norms Needed?

    A new norm that would hold the Russian DNC hack to be unacceptable could not rest on a general prohibition against cyber-espionage or political interference. It would have to combine both prohibitions at once.

    Sep 29, 2016