Emergency Responders


Firefighters, police, and paramedics play a critical role in protecting people and property during fires, medical emergencies, terrorist acts, and natural disasters. RAND has examined the risks that emergency responders face—physical injury, traumatic stress, and hazardous exposures—and has offered guidelines to better protect them, beginning with an integrated approach to safety management that includes cooperation among local and state agencies, improved training, and careful planning.

  • Hotline call center


    Suicide Prevention Hotlines in California Could Improve Services

    Jul 12, 2016

    Suicide prevention hotlines in California respond to callers in need and reduce caller distress. But they could improve their services and reach more users by expanding digital offerings such as chat services and establishing better programs to monitor and improve the quality of their services.

  • Ambulances line the street after explosions interrupted the Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013


    Lessons for First Responders on the Front Lines of Terrorism

    Jul 10, 2017

    Given the persistent risk of terrorist attacks, it is critical to learn from past incidents to prepare for future ones. Medical and nonmedical first responders need more training in basic lifesaving skills. Open communication lines such as a dedicated radio frequency could help responders better coordinate. Disaster drills are also essential.

Explore Emergency Responders

  • Report

    Some Trends in the Delivery of Ambulance Services.

    Some Trends in the Delivery of Ambulance Services.

    Dec 31, 1973

  • Report

    A Hypercube Queueing Model for Facility Location and Redistricting in Urban Emergency Services

    A spatially distributed queueing model is developed to assist administrators of urban emergency services in locating vehicles and designing response districts.

    Dec 31, 1972

  • Report

    Allocation of Emergency Units: Response Areas

    The average travel time for emergency units such as fire engines, ambulances, and police patrol cars, which respond to spatially distributed incidents, is not necessarily minimized by always dispatching the units closest to each incident.

    Dec 31, 1970

  • Content

    Jason Thomas Barnosky

    Senior Political Scientist
    Education PhD in political science, Brown University; BA in political science, New York University

  • Content

    Aaron C. Davenport

    Senior Policy Researcher, International/Defense/Homeland Security/Safety & Health
    Education M.S. in environmental sciences, occupational health, industrial hygiene, minor - hazardous materials, University of California, Los Angeles Fielding School of Public Health

  • Content

    Tom LaTourrette

    Senior Physical Scientist
    Education Ph.D. in geology, California Institute of Technology; B.A. in geology, University of California, Berkeley

  • Content

    James Ryseff

    Technical Analyst
    Education M.S. in security studies, Georgetown University; B.S. in computer science, University of Illinois

  • Periodical

    Developing and Testing the Health Care Safety Hotline

    This article describes the design, development, and testing of the Health Care Safety Hotline, a prototype consumer reporting system for patient safety events. The reports obtained by the system provided useful information, but report volume was low.