Employment and Unemployment


An individual's education, age, and health status may present barriers or opportunities to employability, just as a region's economy, tax base, and number of immigrants and emigrants may affect job availability. RAND research examines the impact of a range of policies and forces—personal, regional, and global—on employment and unemployment.

Explore Employment and Unemployment

  • 3d printing in progress


    Additive Manufacturing in 2040: Powerful Enabler, Disruptive Threat

    If additive manufacturing—also called 3D printing—continues to develop along its current trends, it could profoundly alter the global economy, international security, and the organization of society.

    May 8, 2018

  • A woman inspects a manufacturing plant


    Keeping Americans on the Job in a Changing Economy

    Despite calls to bring back U.S. coal mines and factories, the real issue isn't a lack of family-sustaining jobs, it's a mismatch between workers and available jobs.

    Oct 20, 2017

  • A foreman and an engineer examining metal in a factory


    Building a Sustainable STEM Workforce in Appalachia

    The tristate region of Pennsylvania, Ohio, and West Virginia needs more workers with STEM skills to fill jobs in the energy and advanced manufacturing sectors. The Appalachia Partnership Initiative has made investments aimed at addressing this issue. What kind of progress has the initiative made?

    Oct 12, 2017

  • An oil and gas worker operates a drilling rig


    Wages, Employment, and STEM Education in Appalachia

    An ongoing assessment of employment and wages in energy and advanced manufacturing industries in the Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia region captures trends about which counties might have greater demand for educating or employing local talent in STEM careers.

    Mar 22, 2017

  • Young barista working in a cafe


    Finding the 'Sweet Spot' in the UK Minimum Wage Debate

    Increases in the UK national minimum wages have not had adverse effects on employment overall. But it's important that the new national living wage and minimum wage aren’t increased to a point that is unsustainable for businesses.

    Nov 28, 2016

  • Mother holding her baby while working from home


    Is It Time to Extend Maternity Leave Across Europe?

    Any policy solution for extending maternity leave must strike a balance between protecting infant health through extended breastfeeding and mitigating any potentially negative impact on the mother's career progression or increased costs to business.

    Sep 13, 2016

  • Two engineers check the status of equipment in a manufacturing facility


    Wages, Employment, and STEM Education in Appalachia

    The first county-level examination of wages and employment for workers in the Appalachia region with STEM training sets a baseline that will help measure the ongoing success of the Appalachia Partnership Initiative's efforts to prepare K-12 students and local workers for jobs in the energy and advanced manufacturing sectors.

    Mar 9, 2016

  • Jerome Boone shakes hands with members of the audience after graduating from a computer coding program at San Quentin State Prison in California, April 20, 2015


    The Impact of Correctional Education

    Policymakers are considering how to reduce mass incarceration in the United States. Correctional education programs can help reduce recidivism and improve post-release employment outcomes. This saves taxpayers money.

    Nov 10, 2015

  • Workers prepare to change drilling pipes on the rotary table of a natural gas rig near Towanda, Pennsylvania, February 3, 2010

    Research Brief

    Aligning Education and Training to Meet Energy Workforce Needs

    Energy-sector employers in West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania report having difficulty filling semiskilled jobs. And the sector's technology is changing quickly. How can the region's leaders improve the workforce-development pipeline?

    Aug 31, 2015

  • Los Angeles firefighters standing in a flood


    Improving the Recruiting and Hiring of Los Angeles Firefighters

    The city of Los Angeles should revise its hiring process for firefighters in ways that increase diversity among highly-competitive applicants, minimize processing demands on the city, and create greater transparency for applicants in minimum qualifications and selection criteria.

    Jan 22, 2015

  • London commuters


    Seven Chances to Meet Europe's Employment Targets

    The EU will fail to meet the Europe 2020 Strategy target of having 75 percent of people between the ages of 20 and 64 in work unless enough women are encouraged to enter, or remain in, the workforce. Here are seven factors the new EU Commissioners responsible for gender equality and employment must address.

    Oct 30, 2014

  • businesswoman holding her child in the office


    Reflecting on Gender Equality in Europe

    With the United Nations 2014 International Women's Day theme being “Equality for Women is Progress for All,” it is a time to reflect on progress made, raise awareness of the struggles that women and men still face, and consider how best these challenges could be addressed.

    Mar 7, 2014

  • Research Brief

    Research Brief

    The Employment and Earnings of Military Wives

    Military spouses may encounter unique obstacles to pursuing work, including the rigid and unpredictable demands on the military member's time as well as frequent reassignments and changes of residence.

    Jan 1, 2004

  • Research Brief

    Research Brief

    Workers' Compensation Outcomes Differ Little at Self-Insured and Insured Firms: Raising Questions About Adequacy and Equity of Benefits

    Workers who file claims for permanent partial disabilities from job-related accidents at private self-insured firms in California recover less than half of their injury-related wage losses during the first five years after injury.

    Jan 1, 2001

  • Report


    Urban Unemployment in Colombia: Measurement, Characteristics, and Policy Problems

    An analysis of the dimensions and characteristics of urban unemployment in Colombia. About 10 to 16 percent of the labor force in the larger cities are unemployed, and unemployment is increasing.

    Jan 1, 1968

  • Content


    Lisa Abraham

    Associate Economist
    Education Ph.D. in economics, Harvard University; MSc in economics & management, London School of Economics & Political Science; B.A. in mathematics & economics (double-major), Wellesley College

  • Content


    Nicholas Broten

    Assistant Policy Researcher
    Education Ph.D. in policy analysis, Pardee RAND Graduate School; M.S. in economics, California Institute of Technology; M.Sc. in economic history, London School of Economics; B.A. in political economy, University of California, Berkeley

  • Content


    Shawn David Bushway

    Senior Policy Researcher
    Education Ph.D. in public policy analysis and political economy, Carnegie Mellon University; B.S. in mathematics, University of Notre Dame

  • Content


    Kathryn A. Edwards

    Economist; Professor, Pardee RAND Graduate School
    Education Ph.D. in economics, University of Wisconsin at Madison; M.S. in economics, University of Wisconsin at Madison; B.A. in economics, government, plan ii (humanities), University of Texas at Austin

  • Content


    Lindsey Gawthrop

    Human Resources Manager, RAND Europe
    Education B.Sc. in human resources management, University of Leicester

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