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From education, energy security, immigration, and health care to information technology, justice, and security policy, Europe faces myriad challenges in the 21st century. RAND research has long tackled similar problems facing the United States, and for nearly 30 years, RAND Europe has applied its analytical expertise in these areas to public- and private-sector clients throughout Europe.

  • Commentary

    Potential Pathways to Russian Escalation Against NATO

    A Russia-NATO war is far from an inevitable outcome of the current conflict in Ukraine. U.S. and allied policymakers should be concerned with specific pathways and potential triggers, but they need not operate under the assumption that every action will entail acute escalation risks.

    Jul 26, 2022

  • Project

    RAND Europe Improves Policy and Decision Making in Europe and Around the World

    RAND Europe is a not-for-profit research institute dedicated to helping improve policy and decision making through research and analysis. With offices in the UK and Belgium, its research portfolio complements RAND's and also includes choice modeling, evaluation, workplace wellbeing, and much more.

    Jul 22, 2021

Explore Europe

  • Signage at the entrance to the UK Ministry of Defence building in Whitehall, photo by pxl.store/Adobe Stock.

    Journal Article

    Defence Industrial Power: Understanding the UK's Post-Brexit Role

    This article explores the current challenges in UK foreign policy, particularly in regard to defence. It argues that the UK retains considerable potential post-Brexit, but faces several obstacles in developing its defence industrial power.

    Sep 29, 2023

  • The U.N. Security Council convenes an emergency meeting in New York on March 31, 2023, to discuss Russia's plan to deploy tactical nuclear weapons in Belarus, photo by Kyodo via Reuters

    Commentary

    How Much Is Enough for U.S. Nuclear Forces?

    Deterrence is difficult because it's about perceptions and resolve rather than just pure numbers. Potential adversaries need to perceive that the United States has enough nuclear weapons to deter them, and also that U.S. officials believe the United States has enough that Washington's resolve will not falter in the face of provocation or coercion.

    Sep 27, 2023

  • A soldier from the mine disposal unit prepares to search for landmines along a coast in Kinmen, Taiwan, May 18, 2009, photo by Pichi Chuang/Reuters

    Commentary

    Landmines in Ukraine: Lessons for China and Taiwan

    In shaping patterns of future warfare, militaries across the world will be seeking to absorb the key lessons of the Russia-Ukraine War. Chinese strategists are particularly attuned to the major role that landmines have played in the conflict.

    Sep 26, 2023

  • U.S. M1A2 Abrams tanks prior to a live fire exercise at Drawsko Pomorskie, Poland, February 16, 2023, photo by Staff Sgt. Matthew A. Foster/U.S. Army National Guard

    Commentary

    Poland and Ukraine: Defending Europe's Future

    In the Cold War, West Germany, with robust NATO support, stood guard at the center of the Iron Curtain. Looking ahead, Poland and Ukraine along with NATO will defend Europe's center at the front line. Insights from the West German experience might help them.

    Sep 25, 2023

  • A Russian military convoy travel on a main road leads to the River Enguri, about 3 km from the western Georgian city of Zugdidi, August 19, 2008.

    Report

    Anticipating Flashpoints with Russia: Patterns and Drivers

    The authors combined quantitative and qualitative modes of analysis to better understand and anticipate flashpoints with Russia.

    Sep 25, 2023

  • RAND Weekly Recap

    Blog

    Escalation in Ukraine, a Trilateral Imperialist Threat, Disaster Recovery: RAND Weekly Recap

    This weekly recap focuses on the risk of escalation in Ukraine, the growing threat of a North-Korea-Russia-China partnership, the economics of disaster recovery, and more.

    Sep 22, 2023

  • Journal Article

    Journal Article

    Evaluation of the Industrial Strategy Challenge Fund: Process Evaluation Report

    This process evaluation provides recommendations for the design, delivery and engagement processes of the UK Research and Innovation’s (UKRI) Industrial Strategy Challenge Fund (ISCF).

    Sep 22, 2023

  • News Release

    News Release

    RAND Analysis Outlines Possible Further Escalation in Ukraine Conflict, Including Potential for Russian Nuclear Attack

    A new RAND Corporation analysis evaluates the potential for further escalation of Putin's ongoing invasion of Ukraine, including the grave prospect of a Russian nuclear attack on Ukraine. A perception that Russian military losses on the battlefield are threatening the security of Putin's regime would provide the most likely trigger for a nuclear attack on Ukrainian territory.

    Sep 21, 2023

  • A civilian residential building in Kyiv, Ukraine, burns and smokes heavily after being bombed by Russian missiles, March 2022, photo by A_Gree/Alamy Stock Photo

    Research Brief

    Understanding the Risk of Escalation in the War in Ukraine

    What might lead to escalation of the war in Ukraine? And how can U.S. and allied policymakers both prepare for—and prevent—such a scenario from occurring?

    Sep 21, 2023

  • Report

    Escalation in the War in Ukraine: Lessons Learned and Risks for the Future

    This report evaluates the potential for further escalation in the war in Ukraine, including possible escalation to Russian nuclear use, to better inform U.S. and allied decisions and the public debate.

    Sep 21, 2023

  • The M142 High Mobility Artillery Rocket System (HIMARS), photo by U.S. Army

    Commentary

    Why Improve Ukraine's Deep-Strike Capability?

    Coordinated deep-strike capabilities—air-launched and ground-launched—will be most effective in degrading Russian forces and operations. Using air and ground launchers would force Russian commanders to devote substantial intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance capabilities to attempt to find these systems.

    Sep 19, 2023

  • U.S. Army Staff Sgt. Curtis Chancey, center, teaches Ukrainian soldiers how to determine grid coordinates during a map reading and land navigation class at the International Peacekeeping and Security Center near Yavoriv, Ukraine, March 5, 2016, photo by Staff Sgt. Adriana M. Diaz-Brown/U.S. Army

    Report

    Can Machine Learning Improve Military Decisionmaking?

    Machine learning has great potential to enable military decisionmaking at the operational level of war but only when paired with human analysts who possess detailed understanding of the context behind a given problem.

    Sep 19, 2023

  • A woman walks near a destroyed hotel in Chernihiv, northern Ukraine, on April 14, 2022, following Russian attacks, photo by Kyodo via Reuters

    Commentary

    Looking Beyond the War: Planning for Ukraine's Reconstruction

    More certain than the outcome of the war is the need for an extensive post-war reconstruction of Ukraine. It is likely to be the largest post-war rebuilding effort since the one in Europe after World War Two. The United States and its allies and partners have an intense interest in the success of reconstruction.

    Sep 18, 2023

  • Journal Article

    Journal Article

    Findings from the Sustaining Delivery of the Covenant Programme

    This study, conducted on behalf of the Armed Forces Covenant Fund Trust (AFCFT), evaluates the grant funding provided through the AFCFT’s Strengthening Delivery Programme (SDP) and Sustaining Delivery Programme.

    Sep 18, 2023

  • Members of Libyan Red Crescent Ajdabiya work in an area affected by flooding, in Derna, Libya, September 12, 2023, photo by Libyan Red Crescent Ajdabiya via Reuters

    Commentary

    It's Time to Take Societal Resilience Seriously

    To build the societal resilience required to respond effectively to everything from climate-related emergencies to pandemics, to intentional state-on-state attacks, and disinformation, a joint approach is needed, not only across government, but across wider society.

    Sep 15, 2023

  • North Korea's leader Kim Jong Un and Russia's President Vladimir Putin attend a meeting at the Vostochny Сosmodrome in the far eastern Amur region, Russia, September 13, 2023, photo by Sputnik/Artem Geodakyan/Pool via Reuters

    Commentary

    North Korea, Russia and China: The Developing Trilateral Imperialist Partnership

    There are no easy ways for the United States and its allies to counter the developing Russia-China–North Korea partnership. But there are options to consider and steps to take. There are also fissures in their relationships to exploit.

    Sep 13, 2023

  • diplomacyU.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken meets with Central Asian states' foreign ministers in Astana, Kazakhstan, February 28, 2023, photo by Olivier Douliery/Pool/Reuters

    Commentary

    A Case for Greater U.S. Engagement in Central Asia

    Central Asia's souring relations with Russia and growing skepticism of Chinese influence have created a rare and valuable window of opportunity for the United States to bolster its image through greater long-term investment in the region.

    Sep 11, 2023

  • RAND Weekly Recap

    Blog

    The Four-Day School Week, AI and Social Media Manipulation, School Safety: RAND Weekly Recap

    This weekly recap focuses on the costs and benefits of a four-day school week, how artificial intelligence is bringing a new era of social media manipulation, the effects of placing police officers in schools, and more.

    Sep 8, 2023

  • Report

    Report

    Proposals to Address Political Interference: Outcomes of a Trilateral Dialogue

    These proceedings reflect discussions among U.S., Russian, and European Union nongovernmental experts who were convened in 2020–2021 to discuss mutual concerns regarding political interference and to find common ground on measures to address them.

    Sep 5, 2023

  • U.S. Marines with 2nd Battalion, 7th Marines, Special Purpose Marine Air Ground Task Force 7, and U.S. Soldiers with 1st Battalion, 52nd Aviation Regiment, conduct tactical recovery of aircraft and personnel training, part of exercise Northern Edge (NE), May 15, 2019 at Fort Greely, Alaska. Approximately 10,000 U.S. military personnel will participate in exercise NE 2019, a joint training exercise hosted by U.S. Pacific Air Forces that prepares joint forces to respond to crises in the Indo-Pacific region., photo by Cpl. Rhita Daniel/U.S. Marine Corps

    Report

    The Strategic Value of Jointness in Major Power Competition and Conflict

    For more than 30 years, the U.S. Department of Defense has placed substantial emphasis on jointness. Understanding what aspects of jointness are most valuable—and why—can help DoD compete more effectively against its adversaries and maximize the United States' competitive military advantages.

    Sep 5, 2023