Europe

Featured

From education, energy security, immigration, and health care to information technology, justice, and security policy, Europe faces myriad challenges in the 21st century. RAND research has long tackled similar problems facing the United States, and for 25 years, RAND Europe has applied its analytical expertise in these areas to public- and private-sector clients throughout Europe.

  • Arrows with UK and EU flag images pointing in opposite directions on the ground, with legs and shoes viewed from above, photo by Delpixart/Getty Images

    Commentary

    A Free Trade Agreement Still Comes with Costs

    Oct 23, 2020

    Major issues must be resolved before any UK-EU agreement on post-Brexit trade and economic relations is completed. There will be substantial costs associated with even a zero-tariff trade deal.

  • european flags on poles

    Project

    RAND Europe Improves Policy and Decision Making in Europe and Around the World

    Mar 1, 2018

    RAND Europe is an independent not-for-profit research institute dedicated to helping improve policy and decision making through research and analysis. With offices in the UK and Belgium, its research portfolio complements RAND's and also includes choice modeling, evaluation, workplace wellbeing, and much more.

Explore Europe

  • Report

    Military Trends and the Future of Warfare: The Changing Global Environment and Its Implications for the U.S. Air Force

    This volume of the Future of Warfare series examines significant factors shaping military trends over the next 10–15 years: changes in the size, quality, and character of military forces available to the United States and its potential adversaries.

    May 11, 2020

  • Air National Guard, Utah Air National Guard, 151st ARW, 191st ARS, KC-135, Air refueling, C-17

    Report

    Geopolitical Trends and the Future of Warfare: The Changing Global Environment and Its Implications for the U.S. Air Force

    This volume of the Future of Warfare series explains six trends—U.S. polarization, China's rise, Asia's realignment, a revanchist Russia, upheaval in Europe, and turmoil in the Islamic world—that will drive conflict between now and 2030.

    May 11, 2020

  • The business centre Lakhta-2, which reportedly houses internet research companies known for the trolling on social media, in St. Petersburg, Russia, February 20, 2018, photo by Anton Vaganov/Reuters

    Commentary

    Exposing Russian Information Operations Does Not Violate the First Amendment

    Russia's hostile information operations are continuous and extend to a broad range of domestic issues. First Amendment concerns are important, but they do not protect hostile information campaigns by foreign actors, nor are they a legal excuse for inaction by the United States.

    May 11, 2020

  • Russian President Vladimir Putin speaks to Finnish President Sauli Niinisto during their meeting at the Bocharov Ruchei state residence in the Black Sea resort of Sochi, Russia, August 22, 2018, photo by Pavel Golovkin/Pool/Reuters

    Commentary

    Why Russia Struggles to Feed Its Great-Power Addiction

    Russia has become less cooperative and pursued more autarky in recent years. If Moscow continues on a path of resisting globalization, it could be left behind.

    May 11, 2020

  • Officials wearing protective gear take body temperatures at a check point, in Marneuli near Tbilisi, Georgia, March 23, 2020, photo by Irakli Gedenidze/Reuters

    Commentary

    COVID-19 Crisis Could Spur Post-Soviet Fixes

    Much of the post-Soviet space remains afflicted with authoritarian rule, inefficient economies, corruption, and regional tensions. The COVID-19 crisis could prod countries to address key issues, but they will need help. Targeted Western aid could help willing countries make progress.

    May 8, 2020

  • The S-400 Triumph surface to air missile system after deployment at a military base near Kaliningrad, Russia, March 11, 2019, photo by Vitaly Nevar/Reuters

    Commentary

    Russian S-400 Surface-to-Air Missile System: Is It Worth the Sticker Price?

    Many countries do not fully appreciate that effective air defense requires a networked system and not just one missile system component. Getting the true defensive value out of the S-400 surface-to-air system requires additional components that add costs and complexities.

    May 6, 2020

  • Joseph Wilkinson does schoolwork at his home in Manchester, Britain, March 23, 2020, photo by Phil Noble/Reuters

    Commentary

    Digital Learning Needs to Benefit All Children When Schools Close

    Three factors are essential for any digital learning method. First, it must be inclusive. Second, it should support the learning experience, not replace it. And third, evidence of what works should inform digital learning interventions.

    May 4, 2020

  • Report

    Report

    Preservation of Tactical Air Combat Potential in Western Europe: Guided Missile Defense Potential

    An investigation of surface-to-air guided missiles as a means of augmenting Allied tactical air bases in Western Europe from 1955 to 1958.

    Apr 30, 2020

  • Representatives of 28 countries tour the Grafenwoehr training facilities and a live-fire demonstration of the XM1296 Stryker Infantry Carrier Vehicle-Dragoon, in Grafenwoehr, Germany, September 2018, photo by Markus Rauchenberger/U.S. Army

    Research Brief

    Reimagining Conventional Arms Control

    For much of the past 30 years, conventional arms control (CAC) has played a historic role in ensuring the security of Europe. But today, the CAC regime is outdated and mostly irrelevant. New approaches to CAC are needed to address the challenges posed by the current security environment.

    Apr 29, 2020

  • A Skyborg conceptual design for a low-cost attritable unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV), image by Air Force Research Laboratory

    Report

    Military Applications of AI Raise Ethical Concerns

    Artificial intelligence offers great promise for national defense. For example, a growing number of robotic vehicles and autonomous weapons can operate in areas too hazardous for soldiers. But what are the ethical implications of using AI in war or even to enhance security in peacetime?

    Apr 28, 2020

  • The U.S. Army hosted a Russian Vienna Document inspection team to observe exercise Saber Guardian at Novo Selo Training Area, Bulgaria, 2017, photo by U.S. Army

    Report

    Conventional Arms Control in Europe Needs a New Approach

    Conventional arms control (CAC) was a crucial element of the negotiations that ended the Cold War peacefully. Today, however, the CAC regime is outdated and largely irrelevant. What new CAC measures could lower the risk of conflict in Europe?

    Apr 27, 2020

  • Report

    Report

    Russian Assessments and Applications of the Correlation of Forces and Means

    The authors examine how Russia assesses and applies the correlation of forces and means -- the military balance between two opponents at the global, regional, and local levels -- and outline recent relevant developments in Russian military thought.

    Apr 20, 2020

  • Soldiers from the Norwegian Army prepare their tank during a military drill in Setermoen, Norway, October 30, 2019, photo by Stoyan Nenov/Reuters

    Commentary

    How Norway's Allies View Its Defense Challenges and Opportunities

    Norway's Ministry of Defence will shortly publish its next Long Term Plan, which outlines how the Armed Forces, in tandem with other elements of government and society, can best address the threats to Norway. Other countries can learn from how Norway chooses to tackle emerging challenges, and can benefit from its lessons learned.

    Apr 16, 2020

  • Medical staff are seen at the NHS Nightingale Hospital at the ExCel Centre as the spread of COVID-19 continues, in London, Britain, April 14, 2020, photo by John Sibley/Reuters

    Commentary

    How COVID-19 May Affect NHS Staff

    COVID-19 may leave a long legacy of poor health and well-being in the National Health Service workforce. This could affect quality of care and the financial performance of the system. We need to ensure that NHS organizations provide significant support for health care workers.

    Apr 15, 2020

  • People wearing protective face masks wait for a bus in front of St. Paul's Cathedral in London, Britain, March 19, 2020, photo by Simon Dawson/Reuters

    Commentary

    COVID-19: The Questions Ahead for Future Travel and Transport

    COVID-19 could have lasting effects on future travel patterns. Future scenarios, a method for visualizing different possible futures, can help inform decisions in deeply uncertain situations and can be used to think about policies that are important for people's quality of life regardless of how the future unfolds.

    Apr 15, 2020

  • Woman working at home at a computer, photo by SolStock/Getty Images

    Commentary

    It Is More Important Than Ever for Employers to Look After Staff Health and Wellbeing

    COVID-19 will likely have a direct effect on the health and wellbeing of employees. While many employers responding to the COVID-19 crisis have understandably been concerned with business resilience, processes, and performance, it is important that they also continue to focus on the health and wellbeing of staff.

    Apr 9, 2020

  • A Yars RS-24 intercontinental ballistic missile system in Red Square in Moscow, Russia, September 5, 2017, photo by Yuri Kochetkov/Reuters

    Commentary

    New START Is Not NAFTA

    The 2010 New START Treaty with Russia reduces long-range nuclear arms. President Trump may seek a different deal, however, as he did in renegotiating NAFTA. But NAFTA talks succeeded because America had predominant leverage and because Canada and Mexico are friends. Neither holds true with Russia.

    Apr 8, 2020

  • Journal Article

    Journal Article

    Healthcare Utilization Among Migrants to the UK: Cross-Sectional Analysis of Two National Surveys

    Researchers explored health service utilization among migrants to the UK, adjusting for age, sex, long-term health conditions and time since moving to the UK. The study found that healthcare use was lower among migrants than the UK-born population.

    Apr 1, 2020

  • Ventilators are stored and ready to be used at ExCel London, during its conversion into the temporary NHS Nightingale Hospital to help tackle the COVID-19 outbreak, in London, U.K., March 31, 2020, photo by Stefan Rousseau/Reuters

    Commentary

    The Pandemic Has Sparked Innovation, Offering Lessons We Must Not Forget

    COVID-19 has shocked the world and caught most countries unprepared, forcing them to improvise. But amid all the confusion and fear, the power of individuals, organizations, and communities to think differently and to innovate shows what can be achieved when people are united by common, clear priorities and necessity.

    Apr 1, 2020

  • A Norwegian Army Leopard 2A4 main battle tank during the NATO exercise Trident Juncture in Norway, 2018, photo by Ole-Sverre Haugli/Norwegian Armed Forces

    Report

    Enhancing Security on NATO's Northern Flank: Options for Norway

    Norway supports deterrence, crisis management, and security in the High North—which includes the Scandinavian territories and northern Russia. What regional insights can other NATO allies provide to help Norway in its security role?

    Mar 25, 2020