Europe

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From education, energy security, immigration, and health care to information technology, justice, and security policy, Europe faces myriad challenges in the 21st century. RAND research has long tackled similar problems facing the United States, and for 25 years, RAND Europe has applied its analytical expertise in these areas to public- and private-sector clients throughout Europe.

  • Vials of COVID-19 vaccine, photo by MarsBars/Getty Images

    Report

    COVID-19 'Vaccine Nationalism' Could Cost $1.2 Trillion a Year

    Oct 28, 2020

    Nationalistic behavior by governments may exclude some countries from access to COVID-19 vaccines. This could cost the world economy up to $1.2 trillion a year in GDP. A globally coordinated effort to fight the pandemic is key, not only from a public health perspective but also an economic one.

  • european flags on poles

    Project

    RAND Europe Improves Policy and Decision Making in Europe and Around the World

    Jul 22, 2021

    RAND Europe is a not-for-profit research institute dedicated to helping improve policy and decision making through research and analysis. With offices in the UK and Belgium, its research portfolio complements RAND's and also includes choice modeling, evaluation, workplace wellbeing, and much more.

Explore Europe

  • The 1st Battalion, 82nd Field Artillery Regiment, 1st Armored Brigade Combat Team, 1st Cavalry Division, color guard marches off Tower Barracks parade field after a battalion reenlistment ceremony at Grafenwoehr Training Area, Germany, Dec. 28, 2018, photo by Sgt. Jamar Marcel Pugh/U.S. Army National Guard

    Brochure

    RAND Arroyo Center Annual Report 2020

    This Annual Report illustrates the depth, breadth, and responsiveness of the studies that RAND Arroyo Center conducted for the Army in fiscal year 2020.

    Nov 10, 2020

  • Report

    Report

    Unlocking NATO's Amphibious Potential: Lessons from the Past, Insights for the Future

    Researchers analyze the past, present, and future employment of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's amphibious forces, highlight ongoing initiatives, and identify several efforts that should be pursued to advance its amphibious capabilities.

    Nov 9, 2020

  • A SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket carrying Starlink satellites into orbit lifts off from Pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, FL, October 6, 2020, photo by Space X/Latin America News Agency/Reuters

    Commentary

    How to Avoid a Space Arms Race

    Some 70 countries and multinational organizations own or operate satellites and there are plans for many more. Multilateral cooperative efforts could help set a foundation for the adoption of transparency and confidence measures that offer realistic hope of reducing risks and protecting freedom of access to space for all nations.

    Oct 26, 2020

  • Arrows with UK and EU flag images pointing in opposite directions on the ground, with legs and shoes viewed from above, photo by Delpixart/Getty Images

    Commentary

    A Free Trade Agreement Still Comes with Costs

    Major issues must be resolved before any UK-EU agreement on post-Brexit trade and economic relations is completed. There will be substantial costs associated with even a zero-tariff trade deal.

    Oct 23, 2020

  • Increasing Connections. A closely connected network of people and technology. Illustration. Photo by James Thew/Adobe Stock

    Multimedia

    Using AI to Tackle Disinformation Online

    RAND Europe analyst Linda Slapakova talks with RAND senior behavioral scientist William Marcellino about their study on human-machine detection of online-based malign information.

    Oct 23, 2020

  • Female hand touching screen of the phone surrounded with social media notification icons, photo by nikolas_stock/AdobeStock

    Journal Article

    Social Media and Influence Operations Technologies: Implications for Great Power Competition

    Russia, China, and the so-called Islamic State are three key U.S. adversaries that have exploited online technologies for propaganda. This chapter reviews the aims, capabilities, and limitations of online propaganda for each of these entities.

    Oct 23, 2020

  • Journal Article

    Journal Article

    The Past, Present, and Future of Russia's Cyber Strategy and Forces

    This article aims to show that there is more continuity than contrast between Russian cyber perspectives and practice.

    Oct 22, 2020

  • Italian air force F-35 and Eurofighter Typhoons fly in formation over Italy during a training mission, courtesy photo, U.S. Air Forces in Europe and Air Forces Africa

    Report

    European Contributions to NATO's Future Combat Airpower

    European air forces currently have limited capabilities for defending allies in high-intensity conflict. However, Europe's airpower is trending in the right direction, especially with the introduction of fifth-generation aircraft.

    Oct 22, 2020

  • A poll worker casts a mail-in ballot for a voter at a drive-thru polling station during the primary election amid the COVID-19 outbreak in Miami, Florida, August 18, 2020, photo by Marco Bello/Reuters

    Project

    Analyzing Election Disinformation Efforts

    Foreign interference in U.S. politics has been a concern since the nation was founded. More recently, the U.S. Senate Committee on Intelligence presented evidence that Russia directed activities against election infrastructures and spread disinformation on social media during the 2016 presidential election.

    Oct 20, 2020

  • Blog

    Russian Propaganda, Domestic Terrorism, America's Electric Grid: RAND Weekly Recap

    This weekly recap focuses on how Americans react to Russian memes on Facebook, the possibility of domestic terrorism during election season, protecting the U.S. electric grid, and more.

    Oct 16, 2020

  • News Release

    News Release

    Facebook Users May Spread Russian Propaganda Less Often When They Are Aware of Its Source

    Russian propaganda is hitting its mark on social media—generating strong partisan reactions that may help intensify political divisions—but Facebook users are less apt to press the “like” button on content when they learn that it is part of a foreign propaganda campaign.

    Oct 15, 2020

  • Laptop depicting Russian propaganda on Facebook with a bullseye mark, images by guteksk7, iiierlok_xolms, carmelod, and FishPouch/Adobe Stock

    Report

    Facebook Users May Spread Russian Propaganda Less Often If They Know Its Source

    Russian propaganda is hitting its mark on social media, generating strong partisan reactions that help intensify political divisions. But Facebook users are less apt to press the like button on content when they learn that it is part of a foreign propaganda campaign.

    Oct 15, 2020

  • Journal Article

    Journal Article

    Early Evidence of the Development of Primary Care Networks in England: A Rapid Evaluation Study

    In 2019, NHS England asked general practices to group into primary care networks and offer extra services to improve the health and wellbeing of local communities. This research looked at how these networks were established, what they have achieved so far and what has helped or hindered progress.

    Oct 15, 2020

  • Older man and woman sitting on a bench at an assisted living community, photo by monkeybusinessimages/Getty Images

    Commentary

    Learning from Existing Novel Approaches to Solving the Adult Social Care Crisis Is Better Than Reinventing the Wheel

    The growing gap in the UK between the need for social care for older people and the provision of support arises not only from a crisis of funding, but also from a failure to learn from what is already being done well. Closing the gap might be achieved by learning from creative approaches already being tried and then implementing them.

    Oct 14, 2020

  • Russian submarine with map overlay of Black Sea, photos by LA(Phot) Guy Pool/Wikimedia Commons and kdow/Getty Images

    Report

    Understanding Russian Black Sea Power Dynamics

    Russian investment since 2014 has profoundly shifted the military balance in the Black Sea. NATO has taken some steps to assert its presence but the United States and regional allies may have limited options to expand existing defense and deterrence measures.

    Oct 13, 2020

  • Blog

    Election Interference on Twitter, Insulin Prices, Remote Learning: RAND Weekly Recap

    This weekly recap focuses on evidence of interference in the 2020 election on Twitter, U.S. insulin prices compared to those of other countries, how parents can help their kids' education stay on track during the pandemic, and more.

    Oct 9, 2020

  • Battalion of French soldiers of the RSMA marching during a monthly ceremony rewarding the young soldiers in Saint-Paul, LaRéunion, June 28 2017, photo by Gwengoat/Getty Images

    Commentary

    Grand Strategy Is Total: French Gen. Andre Beaufré on the Nuclear Age

    Gen. André Beaufre, the father of contemporary French strategic thought, epitomizes better than anyone the traits that make modern French military theory unusually rich. He is also a key for accessing a rich and distinctly different way of thinking about war with direct applications for today, whether one is pondering Afghanistan or how to deal with China.

    Oct 8, 2020

  • News Release

    News Release

    Coordinated Efforts on Twitter to Interfere in the U.S. Presidential Election Are Likely Foreign

    A coordinated effort on Twitter to influence the upcoming U.S. presidential election—using trolls (fake personas that spread hyper-partisan themes) and super-connectors (highly-networked accounts)—aims to sow distrust, exacerbate political divisions and undermine confidence in American democracy.

    Oct 8, 2020

  • Overlapping silhouettes of mobile phone users, illustration by smartboy10/Getty Images

    Report

    Foreign Actors Are Again Using Twitter to Interfere with the U.S. Election

    After the 2016 U.S. election it became clear that Russian agents had engaged in online efforts to sow chaos and inflame partisan divides among Americans. Interference is happening again now. It includes posts from trolls—fake personas spreading hyper-partisan themes—and superconnectors designed to spread messages quickly.

    Oct 8, 2020

  • Suggestion box attached to a wall, Photo by Hashir Milhan / CC BY 2.0

    Commentary

    Before Redesigning the REF, a New Survey Could Help in Understanding What Is and Isn’t Working

    September's call for more sustainable and agile research funding signaled a renewed push by research-intensive universities in the UK for a funding and assessment system with a lighter touch. Before embarking on a further round of changes, it is important to listen and learn from researchers and managers about what has and has not worked well.

    Oct 6, 2020