European Union

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The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 28 independent Member States. RAND frequently conducts research for EU institutions and agencies and has also explored such topics as the EU's role in nation building and the implications of EU expansion on the global security environment.

  • British and European Union flags in a cloudy sky, photo by themotioncloud/Getty Images

    Report

    Further Trade Uncertainty Due to Brexit Could Cost UK Billions

    Jan 28, 2020

    The UK's official departure from the EU only ends the first phase of trade uncertainty related to Brexit. Costs to the UK economy are likely to continue during the UK–EU renegotiation period and will increase over time. By the end of 2020, UK GDP could decrease by $5.5 billion (£4.4bn).

  • Girl doing homework while using a breathing treatment, photo by anandaBGD/Getty Images

    Commentary

    How a Poor Indoor Environment at Home Affects Children's Health in the EU

    Nov 4, 2019

    One third of children in the EU are exposed to damp or mold, cold, darkness, and noise in their own homes. The good condition of homes should not only be seen as an issue of comfort, but as an essential basic requirement for good health of the residents, especially when they are families with children.

Explore European Union

  • Malian soldiers ride in the back of a truck in Timbuktu, January 2015

    Report

    How to Address Mali's Terrorist Problem

    The terrorist threat in Mali is growing, but the country's military remains largely ineffective. Mali can't handle the threat without outside help. How can the United States engage Mali and other partners to help foster greater security and stability?

    Apr 20, 2017

  • NATO defense ministers attend a meeting at NATO headquarters in Brussels, Belgium, October 26, 2016

    Report

    European Relations with Russia in the Wake of the Ukrainian Crisis

    Perceptions of Russia as a military threat differ sharply across Europe. But European leaders generally agree that relations with Russia have changed irreparably, tensions are unlikely to recede anytime soon, and future actions toward Russia will depend on Moscow's behavior.

    Apr 13, 2017

  • Gibraltar profile with Euro flag

    Commentary

    This Latest Gibraltar Dispute Is a Sign of Things to Come

    In many ways, Gibraltar is the first Brexit issue where both the UK and EU find themselves stuck between a rock and a hard place. How this diplomatic problem is resolved now could help set the tone for Brexit negotiations during the next two years.

    Apr 5, 2017

  • Tool

    Monitoring Open Science Trends in Europe

    The Open Science Monitor tracks trends in areas that have consistent and reliable data, specifically: open access, open research data, open scholarly communication and citizen science.

    Apr 3, 2017

  • British Prime Minister Theresa May signs the official letter invoking Article 50 and the UK's intention to leave the EU, March 28, 2017, London

    Commentary

    Brexit and the Politics of Raising Barriers

    A lot is known about bringing new members into alliances and trade relationships. Not much is known about dismantling these bonds peaceably. Since Brexit will be more about adding barriers than taking them down, it will be a leap into the dark.

    Mar 29, 2017

  • A man walks past the European Commission headquarters on which is displayed a banner celebrating 60 years after the signing of the Treaty of Rome, Brussels, Belgium, March 20, 2017

    Commentary

    Sixty Years Later European Integration Has Benefited EU Countries

    Sixty years after the Treaty of Rome, the EU is facing one of its most challenging periods. Closer ties and shared values across EU member states have provided social and economic benefits but any moves towards closer integration in Europe will fail to materialize in the absence of political will.

    Mar 28, 2017

  • Europol headquarters in The Hague, Netherlands

    Commentary

    How Will Defense and Security Be Affected by Brexit?

    Trade and migration issues have dominated Brexit discussions. But the UK's decision to leave the EU also creates challenges for security, deepening uncertainty at a time when little certainty exists.

    Mar 16, 2017

  • Brexit concept, with British and EU flags painted on a cracked wall

    Project

    Defence and Security after Brexit

    Brexit may pose more immediate challenges to UK and European security rather than to defence. However, both are likely to be subject to long-term uncertainty.

    Mar 5, 2017

  • Flags of the United Kingdom and the European Union being cut apart by scissors

    Report

    Defense and Security Implications of Brexit: International Perspectives

    The UK has begun negotiations to leave the EU. How can defense and security actors plan for, mitigate, and address the uncertainties brought on by Brexit?

    Mar 5, 2017

  • Illustration of the flags of the United Kingdom and the European Union

    Report

    What Are the Defense and Security Implications of Brexit?

    Brexit negotiations have focused on trade, sovereignty, and immigration. But the UK's decision to leave the EU also raises important defense and security questions for the UK, Europe, and the world.

    Mar 5, 2017

  • Events @ RAND Audio Podcast

    Multimedia

    Tipping Points in the Arctic

    In this Events @ RAND podcast, a panel of experts discuss several potential economic, environmental, and political "game changers" that could affect strategic decisions in the Arctic region.

    Mar 2, 2017

  • The sun sets on Ice Camp Sargo during Ice Exercise 2016 at the Arctic Circle, March 8, 2016

    Report

    How to Maintain Arctic Cooperation with Russia

    Despite tensions between Russia and the West, Arctic cooperation has remained intact. But America should prepare for changes that may alter Moscow's incentives. These include rising interest in Arctic resources and greater maritime access due to climate change.

    Mar 2, 2017

  • A mother and daughter ride on an urban bike path

    Essay

    What Are the Social Determinants of Health?

    Health care alone can only go so far to promote health. Evidence suggests that where and how people live plays at least as big a role in how well and how long they live.

    Feb 24, 2017

  • Russian President Vladimir Putin speaks during a news conference following the talks with Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orban in Budapest, Hungary, February 2, 2017

    Commentary

    Dealing with a Revanchist Russia

    The deployment of additional U.S. forces and other NATO units to Poland, Norway, the Baltics, and other states symbolically reinforces the West's commitment to the alliance. But countering Russia's influence will require a fundamental reformulation of EU and U.S. political strategy.

    Feb 8, 2017

  • British Prime Minister Theresa May speaks as U.S. President Donald Trump listens during their joint news conference at the White House in Washington, U.S., January 27, 2017.

    Commentary

    Politics Across the Pond

    Donald Trump and Theresa May can't actually get much done on U.S.-U.K. trade in the short term. Whatever Trump and May say or agree to during this visit will be for political effect. Any real bargaining on the economics will take place years in the future.

    Jan 31, 2017

  • Report

    Against the rising tide: an overview of the growing criminalization of the Mediterranean basin

    This publication is part of a series of four RAND Perspectives (PE) each focusing on different challenges in the Mediterranean region. The focus of this PE is on defence and security issues and their implications for regional stability.

    Jan 25, 2017

  • Report

    Cross-Cutting Challenges and their Implications for the Mediterranean region

    This publication is part of a series of four RAND Perspectives (PE) each focusing on different challenges in the Mediterranean region. The focus of this PE is on cross-cutting challenges and their implications for regional stability and security.

    Jan 25, 2017

  • Report

    Regional foreign policy dynamics and their implications for the Mediterranean Region

    This publication is part of a series of four RAND Perspectives (PE) each focusing on different challenges in the Mediterranean region. The focus of this PE is on regional foreign policy dynamics and their implications for stability and security.

    Jan 25, 2017

  • Report

    Troubled waters: a snapshot of security challenges in the Mediterranean region

    This publication is part of a series of four RAND Perspectives (PE) each focusing on different challenges in the Mediterranean region. The focus of this PE is on defence and security issues and their implications for regional stability.

    Jan 25, 2017

  • U.S. and Polish soldiers meet after a welcoming ceremony for U.S. troops deployed as part of a NATO buildup in Eastern Europe, Zagan, Poland, January 14, 2017

    Report

    How Are European Countries Vulnerable to Russia?

    Russia's aggression against Ukraine has highlighted potential threats to NATO and the EU. But European countries differ in how susceptible they are to possible Russian actions.

    Jan 18, 2017

  • Topic Synonyms:
  • EU