Female Populations


Around the globe, many women and girls face barriers to fully participating in society. These include gender-based and intimate-partner violence, sexual assault, unmet health needs, and discrimination. RAND research has examined the needs of women refugees and migrants, gender disparities in health care, the effects of homelessness on women, and the impact of stress and activity levels in girls.

Explore Female Populations

  • Scientist looking through a microscope, photo by sanjeri/Getty Images


    Doubling NIH Funding for Women's Health Would Yield Substantial Return on Investment

    The scientific evidence base generally is biased toward the male body as a result of a long history of generous funding for diseases that predominantly affect men and underfunding for those that predominantly affect women. But the cost of the science pales in comparison to the price we continue to pay for what we don't know about caring for women.

    Jul 8, 2022

  • Blog

    Employing Insurgency in Ukraine, U.S. Hospital Prices, Reaching the Middle Class: RAND Weekly Recap

    This week, we discuss the potential value of an insurgent campaign in Ukraine; addressing L.A.’s housing crisis; lessons from the 2017 battle for Raqqa; a look at U.S. hospital prices; Americans’ options for reaching the middle class; and how to help single mothers get out of poverty.

    Apr 8, 2022

  • A woman picks up free groceries at La Colaborativa, a nonprofit organization providing food and housing assistance in Chelsea, Massachusetts, June 2, 2021, photo by Brian Snyder/Reuters


    The Marriage Plot

    For more than a quarter century, the U.S. government has been sending an unmistakable message to poor, single mothers: Get married. If America genuinely wants to address poverty and achieve gender equality, this has to change.

    Apr 4, 2022

  • Blog

    Putin's State of Mind, the Digital Skills Gap, International Women's Day: RAND Weekly Recap

    This weekly recap focuses on deterring Russian President Vladimir Putin, understanding America’s gun policy debate, improving teacher diversity, and more.

    Mar 11, 2022

  • South Korean President-elect Yoon Seok-yeol is congratulated by party members and lawmakers at the National Assembly in Seoul, South Korea, March 10, 2022, photo by Lee Jin-man/Pool via Reuters


    What the Media Might Have Missed About South Korea's Elections

    The toxicity of the anti-feminist discourse in South Korea does not accurately reflect the gender-related tensions and problems that most Koreans currently face. The obstacles to improving gender equity are more mundane and more ubiquitous than the hyperbole of anti-feminism suggests.

    Mar 10, 2022

  • Midsection of female patient waiting in hospital exam room - stock photo


    The Economic Benefits of Investing in Women's Health Research

    RAND senior sociologist Chloe Bird explains that the benefits of investing in women's health research aren't limited to women's health, but rather include the potential for enormous economic gains.

    Mar 7, 2022

  • A doctor in a lab coat and wearing a stethoscope holds a pictograph of a woman in her hands, photo by Drouk/Getty Images


    Underfunding of Research in Women's Health Issues Is the Biggest Missed Opportunity in Health Care

    For far too long, the medical sciences have treated men and women as interchangeable subjects, favoring men's health for funding and the male body for study. This approach creates a problem, not just for women but for everyone. Not only does it miss a large and critical slice of the population, it leaves an unknown amount of science unexplored.

    Feb 11, 2022

  • A woman reaches for a bottle of alcohol in a store, photo by Kanawa_Studio/Getty Images

    News Release

    Alcohol Consumption Among Men Declined During Pandemic; Men and Women Report More Alcohol-Related Problems

    Alcohol consumption during the coronavirus pandemic declined among men, while it remained steady among women. Researchers found that alcohol-related problems increased during the pandemic, by 49% for women and 69% for men, but the reasons for the problems remain unclear.

    Jan 24, 2022

  • Woman using a laptop while her children hug her, photo by FG Trade/Getty Images


    Married Moms Aren't Striking Workers, but They Are Saying the Same Thing

    If we are in the middle of a labor shortage, recruiting people back into the labor force is key to sustaining a recovery. The historic work choices of married mothers reveal a lot about what might lure people back into the workforce.

    Nov 1, 2021

  • Woman working on a laptop with baby using a tablet in the foreground and older child at a table in the background, photo by recep-bg/Getty Images


    How the Coronavirus Changed the Childcare Debate

    Policymakers have long had evidence that childcare enables mothers to work. What the COVID-19 pandemic taught everyone is how the lack of childcare can be a disastrous constraint.

    Jul 26, 2021

  • Senior couple embracing and smiling, photo by andreswd/Getty Images


    A Black Brother Needs Love, Too

    Elected and appointed to important roles, Black women may have the clout needed to play a significant role in shaping policy. How will they use it? Will they make more and stronger calls to protect Black women? Or will they use their influence to extend these calls to protect Black men and highlight the similar yet unique barriers Black men face?

    Jun 17, 2021

  • Young Black woman testing her blood sugar, photo by PixelsEffect/Getty Images


    Mothers Need a Continuous System of Care Even After Babies Are Born

    In the United States, babies are born into a system of well-child care—a series of planned health care visits designed to protect their health from day one through age six. But no such system exists for their mothers. How do we create a system of health care for mothers that mirrors well-child care?

    May 10, 2021

  • An elderly black woman doing gardening at an outdoor table, surrounded by green plants. Photo by SolStock / Getty Images


    The Impact of Funding Brain Health Research Focused on Women

    An examination of the impact of increased funding for research on Alzheimer's disease and Alzheimer's disease-related dementias in women showed that small investments in women's health research can yield large gains, including benefits above investing in general research.

    Apr 22, 2021

  • Journal Article

    Journal Article

    Association of Genetic Variants With Migraine Subclassified by Clinical Symptoms in Adult Females

    An analysis of migraine diagnostic symptoms among women experiencing migraine from the WGHS recruitment sample to assess whether there were clusters of specific symptoms that might also have a genetic basis.

    Feb 19, 2021

  • Mother working on a laptop while holding her baby, photo by monkeybusinessimages/Getty Images


    Helping Mothers Return to Work Is a Gender Equality Issue

    Employers and policymakers play a crucial role in ensuring that women are not unnecessarily disadvantaged when they have children. Policies such as access to family leave, job protection, and childcare options can play a large role.

    Jan 21, 2021

  • Lauren Hoffmann had to return to work when her son Micah was a few weeks old, due to lack of paid family leave, in San Antonio, Texas, February 6, 2019, photo by Callaghan O'Hare/Reuters


    Supporting Working Parents Could Accelerate Recovery

    Since the COVID-19 recession started last February, almost 3 million women have left the labor force. With vaccines rolling out, will they go back to work? There are several policies that could help.

    Jan 15, 2021

  • The Harry S. Truman Building, headquarters of the U.S. Department of State, in Washington, D.C., photo by AgnosticPreachersKid / CC BY-SA 3.0


    Women and Statecraft History

    RAND policy researcher and historian Stephanie Young remembers her key mentors and the impact they had, whether by asking important questions, encouraging academic pursuits, and modeling female excellence.

    Dec 16, 2020

  • Pakistan's mountain range known for historical nuclear tests seen from London Road, photo by commoner28th/Getty Images


    Women and Statecraft History

    RAND associate policy researcher and historian Michelle Grisé discusses her training as a historian and how she uses it to inform current policy debates and decisionmaking.

    Dec 16, 2020

  • Woman works at home while her children play video games, photo by filadendron/Getty Images


    COVID-19 Gave Managers a Look at Our Home Lives. Will They Now Penalize Women?

    The pandemic gave managers a window into the struggles of working women. What will they do with this information? Will they accommodate women by making exceptions to their established norms? Or will they do the harder work of remaking their culture so women are no longer the exception?

    Dec 14, 2020