First Responders

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Firefighters, police, and paramedics play a critical role in protecting people and property during fires, medical emergencies, terrorist acts, and natural disasters. RAND has examined the risks that emergency responders face—physical injury, traumatic stress, and hazardous exposures—and has offered guidelines to better protect them, beginning with an integrated approach to safety management that includes cooperation among local and state agencies, improved training, and careful planning.

  • A memorial site outside Oxford High School in Oxford, Michigan, after a 15-year-old allegedly killed four classmates and injured seven others on November 30, 2021, photo by Jake May/The Flint Journal via AP

    Essay

    How to Prevent, Prepare for, and Respond to Mass Attacks

    A new step-by-step guide can help communities prevent shootings and other mass attacks before they happen, and save lives when they do. It's written for a variety of public- and private-sector audiences—everyone from emergency responders and school officials to security personnel and community leaders.

    Aug 30, 2022

  • Paramedics treat a man at the gym, photo by sturti/Getty Images

    Report

    Strategies for Improving Prehospital Outcomes for Cardiac Arrest

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a common, life-threatening event that is a leading cause of death in the United States. RAND researchers identified 49 strategies to improve OHCA survival and the delivery of care.

    Jul 20, 2022

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