Incarceration

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  • Prisoners gather around a computer following a graduation ceremony from a computer coding program at San Quentin State Prison in San Quentin, California April 20, 2015

    Report

    Higher Education Programs in Prison Reduce Recidivism

    Aug 28, 2019

    Evidence shows that correctional education programs are effective—and cost-effective—at improving employment outcomes for participants and at helping to keep them from returning to prison. But given limited budgets, how can the long-term funding of these programs be sustained?

  • A worn-down prison block, photo by Tracy King/Adobe Stock

    Commentary

    Incarceration Rates: A Key Measure of Health in America

    Apr 3, 2020

    There's widespread agreement that incarceration has adverse effects on health and health equity, not just for prisoners but also for families and communities. That's one important reason why incarceration in the United States needs to be reduced.

Explore Incarceration

  • News Release

    News Release

    Education and Vocational Training in Prisons Reduces Recidivism, Improves Job Outlook

    Inmates who participate in correctional education programs have a 43 percent lower odds of returning to prison than those who do not. Employment after release is 13 percent higher among prisoners who participated in either academic or vocational education programs than those who did not.

    Aug 22, 2013

  • prisoners attending a class

    Report

    Education and Vocational Training in Prisons Reduces Recidivism, Improves Job Outlook

    Inmates who participate in correctional education programs have a 43 percent lower odds of returning to prison than those who do not. Employment after release is 13 percent higher among prisoners who participated in either academic or vocational education programs than those who did not.

    Aug 22, 2013

  • prison

    Research Brief

    How Effective is Correctional Education?

    One strategy to counter recidivism is to provide education to inmates while incarcerated so that they have the knowledge, training, and skills to support a successful return to their communities.

    Aug 22, 2013

  • inmates outside the Orleans Parish Prison

    Commentary

    New Approach to Prison and the War on Drugs

    If you want to reduce cocaine consumption and drug-related crime, you get more bang for the buck if you put money into treatment rather than paying for the increase in incarceration produced by federal mandatory minimum sentences, writes Beau Kilmer.

    Aug 13, 2013

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    Report

    Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2011-2012 Report

    This annual report for the California Board of State and Community Corrections measures the success of Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act programs and initiatives for six state-mandated outcome measures and county-mandated supplemental measures.

    Aug 12, 2013

  • Teens working together at the Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument

    Commentary

    Advancing Social Outcomes: Private Investors Could Be Part of the Solution

    Under a Social Impact Bond, private investors — rather than the government — provide up-front funding for programs that tackle such challenges as recidivism or homelessness. If these programs succeed, the government pays some of the savings back to the investors.

    May 14, 2013

  • gavel and anvil

    Journal Article

    Racial Disparities in Criminal Court Referrals to Drug Treatment

    The U.S. prison population grew nearly fivefold between 1980 and 2009, at least partially due to the “War on Drugs.” Racial disparities in criminal justice referrals to drug treatment potentially affect access to treatment for hundreds of thousands of individuals arrested for drug offenses each year.

    May 13, 2013

  • Lois Davis speaking at a RAND Policy Forum on Calfornia's prisoner dilemma on January 24, 2012, with Greg Ridgeway, J. Clark Kelso, and R. Steven Tharratt

    Announcement

    Lois Davis's Prisoner Re-Entry Work Earns Recognition from California Assembly

    RAND congratulates senior policy researcher Lois Davis, whose work on the public health consequences of prisoner re-entry in California earned RAND the 64th Assembly District's AB 109 Re-Entry Award.

    Jan 23, 2013

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    Report

    Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2010-2011 Report

    The Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act funds programs that curb crime among juvenile probationers and young at-risk offenders. This report summarizes, for fiscal year 2010-2011, state- and county-determined outcome measures from each program.

    Sep 17, 2012

  • A doctor taking a male patient's blood pressure

    Blog

    Prisoner Reentry and Public Health: Is Your State Ready?

    Lois M. Davis, senior policy researcher, discusses the unique health needs of prisoners re-entering the general population and the role that health plays in their successful re-integration.

    Jul 3, 2012

  • Congressional Briefing Podcast

    Multimedia

    Prisoner Reentry and Public Health: Is Your State Ready?

    In this June 2012 Congressional Briefing, Lois Davis discusses the health care needs of prisoners who reenter the general population; the roles that health care providers, other social services, and family members play in successful reentry; and recommendations for improving access to care for this population in the current fiscal environment.

    Jun 21, 2012

  • Events @ RAND Audio Podcast

    Multimedia

    California's Prisoners Dilemma

    At this January 2012 Policy Forum, experts discuss the public health implications of a U.S. Supreme Court order to reduce the prison population by more than 30,000.

    Jan 24, 2012

  • Los Angeles area map

    Report

    Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2009-2010 Report

    The Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act funds programs that curb crime among juvenile probationers and young at-risk offenders. This report summarizes, for fiscal year 2009-2010, state- and county-determined outcome measures from each program.

    Jan 24, 2012

  • Periodical

    Periodical

    RAND Review: Vol. 35, No. 3, Winter 2011-2012

    Stories discuss world demographic trends, Afghan peace prospects, U.S. health care spending, California prisoner reentry, Latin American inequalities, global health, veterans' mental health, highway investments, teacher bonuses, and charter schools.

    Jan 13, 2012

  • Research Brief

    Research Brief

    Evaluation of the Social Impact Bond: Lessons from planning and early implementation at HMP Peterborough

    RAND Europe has evaluated the world's first Social Impact Bond (SIB), an innovative payment-by-results mechanism to fund public services which aims to reduce reoffending by prisoners. This report presents the initial findings of the evaluation.

    Dec 14, 2011

  • Research Brief

    Research Brief

    What Are the Public Health Implications of Prisoner Reentry in California?

    Examines the health care needs of released California prisoners, communities most affected by reentry, safety net capacity, and provider experiences with ex-prisoners, given California's Public Safety Realignment Plan and federal health care reform.

    Dec 7, 2011

  • News Release

    News Release

    California Faces Challenges Meeting Health Needs of Offenders Released from Prison

    With the health care safety net in California under stress from the state's continuing financial crisis, jurisdictions across the state face unprecedented challenges caring for the health and social service needs of people released from state prisons.

    Nov 16, 2011

  • former prisoner leaving jail

    Report

    California Faces Challenges Meeting Health Needs of Offenders Released from Prison

    With the health care safety net in California under stress from the state's continuing financial crisis, jurisdictions across the state face unprecedented challenges caring for the health and social service needs of people released from state prisons.

    Nov 16, 2011

  • Hands holding seedling in a group

    Report

    Investing in Social Outcomes to Fund Public Services

    At a time when government finances are stretched there is growing interest in finding new ways to fund public services. In 2010 the first ever Social Impact Bond was launched in the UK to provide investors who had funded government interventions for imprisoned offenders with a portion of the resultant savings.

    Nov 4, 2011

  • A woman is checked into the Orange County jail in Santa Ana, California, May 24, 2011, photo by Lucy Nicholson/Reuters

    Commentary

    California's Prisoner Shuffle

    The state needs to deal with prison overcrowding and inadequate medical care for prisoners in ways that don't simply transfer the burden to county criminal justice systems and the healthcare safety nets of local communities, writes Lois Davis.

    Aug 19, 2011