Incarceration

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  • A man shakes a woman's hand at a job fair in Clarksville, Tennessee, March 6, 2020, photo by Casey Williams/Clarksville Now

    Research Brief

    A More Accurate Way to Predict Recidivism Risk in Background Checks

    Jan 6, 2022

    Roughly 30 percent of people in the United States have criminal histories, so exclusions resulting from background checks can foreclose job and other opportunities for many. But what if it were possible to show that some people pose a low risk of recidivism?

  • Camille Glinton (L) kisses her mother Luz Gonzalez at California Institute for Women state prison in Chino, California May 5, 2012. An annual Mother's Day event, Get On The Bus, brings children in California to visit their mothers in prison.

    Essay

    What Programs Can Help Parents in Prison and Their Children?

    May 2, 2022

    Around 2.3 million people live in U.S. jails and prisons, and most of them are parents. What are prisons doing to help them be better parents when they get out? It's more than just a policy question—it's a social justice question.

Explore Incarceration

  • Canvassers leave flyers to drum up support for Oregon's Measure 91, which would legalize recreational marijuana use, in Portland, October 28, 2014

    Research Brief

    The Marijuana Legalization Debate

    Marijuana policy should not be viewed as a binary choice between prohibition and the for-profit commercial model seen in Colorado and Washington. Legalization encompasses a wide range of possible regimes.

    Jan 16, 2015

  • Young man in handcuffs

    Journal Article

    Incarcerated Youths' Perspectives on Protective Factors and Risk Factors for Juvenile Offending: A Qualitative Analysis

    Juvenile offenders admit bad judgment but think a better path is still achievable.

    Jan 7, 2015

  • Priority Criminal Justice Needs Initiative Tool

    Tool

    Interactive Tool for Ranking Corrections Innovation Needs

    Interactive tool that allows users to leverage the research in Fostering Innovation in Community and Institutional Corrections.

    Jan 6, 2015

  • Security guard watching video monitoring surveillance security system with portable radio transmitter

    Report

    New Tool Helps Corrections Agencies Rank Innovation Needs

    Institutional and community corrections agencies are facing increasingly complex tasks and challenges that call for innovative tools, technology, practices, and approaches. Given resource constraints, prioritizing needs is essential. A new tool can help.

    Jan 6, 2015

  • News Release

    News Release

    Previously Removed Immigrants Are More Likely to Be Rearrested After Leaving Jail

    Unauthorized immigrants who previously have been removed from the United States are more than 2.5 times more likely to be rearrested after leaving jail, and are likely to be rearrested much more frequently than those who have never been removed.

    Dec 16, 2014

  • A man is hand-cuffed by the New York Police Department before New Year's Eve celebrations in Times Square

    Journal Article

    Previously Removed Immigrants Are More Likely to Be Rearrested After Leaving Jail

    Unauthorized immigrants who previously have been removed from the United States are more than 2.5 times more likely to be rearrested after leaving jail, and are likely to be rearrested much more frequently than those who have never been removed.

    Dec 16, 2014

  • U.S. Immigration and Customs official arrests an undocumented immigrant

    Commentary

    Prior Removal and Recidivism

    President Obama's executive action on immigration includes a new program that targets immigration enforcement at those arrested for more serious offenses and those deemed to be risks to national security. Research shows that unauthorized immigrants who have been previously deported are more likely to be rearrested after jail release, so local public safety interests and federal immigration enforcement priorities may well align around immigrants with a record of prior removal.

    Dec 11, 2014

  • News Release

    News Release

    Community Justice Center in San Francisco Is Associated with Lower Rearrest Rates

    San Francisco opened the Community Justice Center in 2009 to serve the city's Tenderloin district and adjacent neighborhoods. Those arrested for an eligible offense in the Center catchment area after it opened were 8.9 to 10.3 percent less likely to be rearrested within one year.

    Oct 8, 2014

  • A gavel and handcuffs

    Report

    Community Justice Center in San Francisco Is Associated with Lower Rearrest Rates

    San Francisco opened the Community Justice Center in 2009 to serve its Tenderloin district and adjacent neighborhoods. Those arrested for an eligible offense in the Center catchment area after it opened were 8.9 to 10.3 percent less likely to be rearrested within one year.

    Oct 8, 2014

  • Offenders read and write papers inside the Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary library located in the Darrington Unit of the Texas Department of Criminal Justice men's prison in Rosharon, Texas

    Commentary

    Using Education to Stop the Prison Revolving Door

    Providing education and vocational training to inmates is a cost-effective way to reduce recidivism rates, thus shrinking prison populations and easing the strain on prison budgets. Education is far less expensive than incarceration.

    Sep 30, 2014

  • An adult classroom

    Commentary

    The State of Washington and Its Focus on Rehabilitation

    California can learn a great deal from the state of Washington, which has implemented a series of reforms focused on rehabilitation—on diverting offenders to treatment and other options and making serving time in prison the last option.

    Sep 16, 2014

  • Yes and no boxes on a clipboard

    Commentary

    If You Want Ex-Cons to Be 'Productive Members of Society,' Ban the Box

    When an inmate is released, you often hear Americans say that he's “paid his debt” and can now become “a productive member of society.” But the reality is ex-cons pay for their crimes long after sentences end. On the outside, the stigma of incarceration makes it extremely difficult to land a job.

    Sep 5, 2014

  • Report

    Report

    Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2012–2013 Report

    This annual report to the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors outlines Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act success offering programs to high-need juvenile probationers and at-risk youth.

    Aug 8, 2014

  • Report

    Report

    Phase 2 report from the payment by results Social Impact Bond pilot at HMP Peterborough

    This report is the second from the evaluation of the Social Impact Bond pilot at Peterborough prison. Based on stakeholder interviews it looks at the operation of the pilot over the last four years.

    Jul 18, 2014

  • Events @ RAND Audio Podcast

    Multimedia

    Commencement Weekend Policy Dialogue on Criminal Justice

    In this podcast, recorded during the Pardee RAND Graduate School’s 2014 commencement weekend, Susan L. Marquis, the school’s dean, moderates a policy discussion on criminal justice with a panel of experts.

    Jun 20, 2014

  • Research Brief

    Research Brief

    Is Multisystemic Therapy (MST) Effective for Hispanic Youth? An Evaluation of Outcomes for Juvenile Offenders in Los Angeles County

    Multisystemic Therapy improves outcomes for Hispanic youth in the Los Angeles County juvenile justice system. Although initial program costs are high, decreased criminal justice costs over time for high-risk youth could eventually outweigh them.

    Jun 17, 2014

  • Serving Time or Wasting Time?

    Infographic

    Correctional Education Can Make a Difference

    Inmates who participate in any kind of educational program behind bars are up to 43 percent less likely to reoffend and return to prison. They also are more likely to find a job, and the social stability that comes with it, after their release. Every dollar invested in correctional education saves nearly five in reincarceration costs over three years.

    May 22, 2014

  • Report

    Report

    Substance Use Treatment and Reentry (STAR) Program: Final Evaluation Report

    Homeboy Industries, Inc., collaborated with Behavioral Health Services, Inc., and the RAND Corporation to provide recovery services to newly released juvenile offenders in Los Angeles through the Substance Use Treatment and Reentry (STAR) Program.

    Apr 28, 2014

  • a man holding a book on his lap

    Commentary

    Sending Prisoners to College Will Save You Money

    Correctional education works for states because it saves money and shrinks prison populations. It works for prisoners, the public, law enforcement, and the judicial system because educated prisoners are less likely to return to their criminal ways once released.

    Apr 11, 2014

  • prisoner graduating holding a diploma

    Report

    Prison-Based Education Declined During Economic Downturn

    Large states cut spending on prison education programs by an average of 10 percent between the 2009 and 2012 fiscal years, while medium-sized states cut spending by 20 percent. While the drop appears to have resulted from budget cuts prompted by the economic downturn, evidence suggests that the curtailment of prison education could increase prison system costs in the longer term.

    Mar 18, 2014