India

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India, the world's most populous democracy, has historically been one of the West's strongest allies in a challenging region. RAND research has explored India's nuclear standoff with Pakistan, its economic and military competitions with China, its foreign relations with other South Asian neighbors, and domestic issues from politics and economic development to health care and education.

  • U.S. President Joe Biden holds a virtual meeting with India's Prime Minister Narendra Modi to discuss Russia's war with Ukraine from the White House in Washington D.C., April 11, 2022, photo by Kevin Lamarque/Reuters

    Commentary

    Modi's Multipolar Moment Has Arrived

    Jun 6, 2022

    Russia's war in Ukraine has benefited India as great powers are competing more vigorously for New Delhi's affection, particularly the United States and China. India has also prevented its Russia policy from spoiling partnerships with key European and Indo-Pacific partners. These trends, if sustained, will contribute to India's rise to great-power status and in turn, shift the global system toward even greater multipolarity.

  • An Indian Air Force Dassault Rafale fighter

    Report

    Regional Responses to U.S.-China Competition in the Indo-Pacific: India

    May 24, 2021

    One of the United States' key partners in long-term strategic competition with China is India, which has the world's second-largest active-duty armed forces and is already a peer or near-peer competitor of China across a range of military capabilities. However, U.S. planners must be keenly aware of the constraints on both India's willingness and capacity to forge a partnership based on strategic competition with China.

Explore India

  • Commentary

    Commentary

    The U.S. and India Need to Work Together to Prepare for an Increasingly Chaotic Pakistan

    For every good reason, the Obama Administration is devoting enormous thought to Pakistan. In my judgment, the evolving situation in Pakistan is potentially the most dangerous international situation since the 1962 Cuban missile crisis, writes Robert D. Blackwill.

    May 12, 2009

  • Commentary

    Commentary

    The Future of US-India Relations

    The combination of our largely overlapping vital national interests and shared democratic values should produce a bright future for strategic collaboration between New Delhi and Washington in future decades. But in the immediate period before us, our bilateral ties are likely to be more problematical ...

    May 6, 2009

  • Commentary

    Commentary

    South Asia's Taliban Problem: Multiple Threats From Multiple Groups

    For India, the development of a conducive environment on its western flank for groups like Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Muhammad has already resulted in sophisticated terrorist attacks on Indian soil. While there is good reason for India and its neighbors to be concerned, there is considerable misunderstanding of the threat, writes Seth Jones.

    Apr 14, 2009

  • Testimony

    Testimony

    Context and Implications of the Recent Mumbai Attack: Militant Groups in Pakistan

    In testimony presented before the House Homeland Security Committee, Subcommittee on Transportation Security and Infrastructure Protection, C. Christine Fair discusses antecedents and implications of the November 2008 Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) attack upon several targets in the Indian mega-city of Mumbai.

    Mar 6, 2009

  • Commentary

    Commentary

    Asia's Nonproliferation Laggards: China, India, Pakistan, Indonesia and Malaysia

    The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction ranks as one of the biggest challenges facing the Obama administration. Luckily, Mr. Obama has a tool to combat this threat, in the form of the Proliferation Security Initiative.... The trick now will be to convince key Asian countries to participate, writes Charles Wolf Jr.

    Feb 9, 2009

  • Testimony

    Testimony

    Terrorists Can Think Strategically: Lessons Learned From the Mumbai Attacks

    In testimony presented before the Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee, Brian Michael Jenkins discusses the increasing use of terrorism as an effective strategic weapon.

    Jan 26, 2009

  • News Release

    News Release

    Mumbai Terrorist Attacks Show Rise of Strategic Terrorist Culture

    The Mumbai terrorist attacks in India suggest the possibility of an escalating terrorist campaign in South Asia and the rise of a strategic terrorist culture.

    Jan 16, 2009

  • Report

    Report

    Mumbai Terrorist Attacks Show Rise of Strategic Terrorist Culture

    The Mumbai terrorist attacks in India suggest the possibility of an escalating terrorist campaign in South Asia and the rise of a strategic terrorist culture. This report identifies the operational and tactical features of the attack, evaluates the response of Indian security forces, and analyzes the implications for the region and the U.S.

    Jan 15, 2009

  • Journal Article

    Journal Article

    The Global Diversion of Pharmaceutical Drugs, India: The Third Largest Illicit Opium Producer?

    Explores India's role in the world illicit opiate market, particularly its role as a producer.

    Jan 1, 2009

  • Commentary

    Commentary

    Backlash Against Terror

    The recent terrorist attacks in Mumbai, India, are part of a disturbing trend across the Muslim world of groups that target civilians in the name of Islam. Less visible to Western eyes, but potentially just as significant, is a growing backlash among Muslims who condemn such attacks as unethical, writes ...

    Dec 21, 2008

  • Periodical

    Periodical

    RAND Review: Vol. 32, No. 3, Fall 2008

    The cover story offers 12 suggestions for the new U.S. president; other pieces discuss education and health in China and India, health policy models, the U.S. Postal Service mailbox monopoly, a green U.S. Army, and political reform in the Arab world.

    Dec 14, 2008

  • Commentary

    Commentary

    Mumbai's Terrifying Logic

    We tend to describe terrorism as senseless violence, but it seldom is. If we look at the attacks from the attackers' perspective, we can discern a certain strategic logic, writes Brian Michael Jenkins.

    Dec 9, 2008

  • Commentary

    Commentary

    India, Pakistan Must Confront Threat of More Violence

    As the last Mumbai sites were being cleared of terrorists, grim signs emerged of the challenges that face India and Pakistan. Unfortunately, beginning to know what the Mumbai attack was — and what it was not — only augurs more violence for India. At least three factors are at play, writes Christine Fair.

    Dec 9, 2008

  • Commentary

    Commentary

    The Backlash Against Terror

    The recent terrorist attacks in Mumbai, India, are part of a disturbing trend across the Muslim world of groups that target civilians in the name of Islam. Less visible to Western eyes, but potentially just as significant, is a growing backlash among Muslims who condemn such attacks as unethical, writes Seth Jones.

    Dec 8, 2008

  • Report

    Report

    Enhancement by Enlargement: The Proliferation Security Initiative

    The Proliferation Security Initiative consists of 91 countries seeking to limit the spread of weapons of mass destruction between states or non-state actors that would thereby pose a serious threat to global or regional security. This report assesses the perspectives of the five "hold-out" nations and how to possibly gain their affiliation.

    Nov 21, 2008

  • Report

    Report

    Health of Chinese and Indian Citizens Improves but Still Lags Behind Rest of World

    China and India's health systems have shown advances in boosting life expectancy and disease prevention in the past fifty years. However, those living in the two nations are still exposed to a high degree of financial risk, geographical inequities in health care access, and overall poorer health than in other countries.

    Jun 14, 2008

  • Dissertation

    Dissertation

    Life, Livelihood, and Long Term Well-being: The Effect of Mortality Risks and Land Reforms on Human Capital Investments in India

    Evaluates factors including household preferences, resource constraints, and background factors such as risks and economic shocks in determining childhood investments in rural India.

    Jun 13, 2008

  • Brochure

    Brochure

    Policy Insight, Volume 2, Issue 3, June 2008: Caring for a Third of the World's Population: Challenges for the Health Systems of China and India

    Compares the health systems of China and India, focusing on the challenges that each country faces and the policy levers that can be used to overcome these challenges.

    May 30, 2008

  • Brochure

    Brochure

    Policy Insight, Volume 2, Issue 1, February 2008: China and India: Different Educational Paths Toward Prosperity

    This Policy Insight summarizes how different educational approaches in China and India have been successful in stimulating aggregate economic growth; both paths offer valuable lessons for China, India, and the rest of the developing world.

    Feb 16, 2008

  • Report

    Report

    A Comparison of the Education Systems in India and China

    Different educational approaches in China and India have been successful in stimulating economic growth; the successes and challenges of both education systems offer valuable lessons for China, India, and the rest of the developing world.

    Feb 15, 2008