Information Operations


Information operations and warfare, also known as influence operations, includes the collection of tactical information about an adversary as well as the dissemination of propaganda in pursuit of a competitive advantage over an opponent. RAND research has enabled military leaders and policymakers to develop strategies and policy frameworks to address the challenges of these military operations.

  • The business centre Lakhta-2, which reportedly houses internet research companies known for the trolling on social media, in St. Petersburg, Russia, February 20, 2018, photo by Anton Vaganov/Reuters


    Exposing Russian Information Operations Does Not Violate the First Amendment

    May 11, 2020

    Russia's hostile information operations are continuous and extend to a broad range of domestic issues. First Amendment concerns are important, but they do not protect hostile information campaigns by foreign actors, nor are they a legal excuse for inaction by the United States.

  • Illustration of social media users and trolls, image by dem10/Getty Images


    Machine Learning Can Help Detect Misinformation Online

    Jun 23, 2020

    As social media is increasingly being used as a primary source for news, there is a rising threat from the spread of malign and false information. A new machine learning model identified differences between authentic political supporters and Russian trolls shaping online debates about the 2016 U.S. election. How could the model be applied in the future?

Explore Information Operations

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    William Marcellino

    Senior Behavioral and Social Scientist; Professor, Pardee RAND Graduate School
    Education Ph.D. in rhetoric, Carnegie Mellon University

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    Krystyna Marcinek

    Assistant Policy Researcher; Ph.D. Candidate, Pardee RAND Graduate School
    Education M.A. in Russian, East European, and Eurasian studies, Jagiellonian University, Poland

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    Christopher Paul

    Senior Social Scientist; Professor, Pardee RAND Graduate School
    Education Ph.D., M.A., and B.A. in sociology, University of California, Los Angeles

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    Benjamin James Sacks

    Associate Policy Researcher
    Education Ph.D. in history, Princeton University; M.A. in history, Princeton University; B.A. in history, Tufts University

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    Michael Schwille

    Senior Policy Analyst
    Education M.A. in international development studies, George Washington University; B.A. in history, University of Pittsburgh

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    Anthony Vassalo

    Senior International/Defense Policy Researcher
    Education BS, USMA; MA in history, Duke; ALM in management, Harvard

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    Jonathan Welch

    Senior Policy Analyst
    Education M.A. in international relations and international economics, Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies; B.E. in marine engineering, State University of New York Maritime College