Information Security


Technology allows individuals and organizations access to more comprehensive and diverse information, but this access requires that electronic information, networks, data repositories, and data transmissions be adequately safeguarded. RAND has developed a large body of research focused on recognizing the potential threats to information security and data integrity, as well as implications for personal and institutional privacy.

  • Composite image of binary code on a sunset over water by Eileen Delson La Russo/RAND, adapted from images by Agil_Leonardo, Matejmo, and Byakkaya/Getty Images


    The Life and Times of Zero-Day Software Vulnerabilities

    Mar 9, 2017

    Zero-day software vulnerabilities—security holes that developers haven't fixed or aren't aware of—can lurk undetected for years. They are useful in cyber operations and in defensive and academic settings. Whether to disclose or stockpile them is an ongoing debate.

  • Woman using smartphone and laptop with icon graphic cyber security network of connected devices and personal data security, photo by oatawa/Getty Images


    How to Help Small Businesses Deal with Cyber Threats

    Sep 15, 2017

    Small businesses are especially vulnerable to cyber threats. What can be done to provide small businesses the security to continue to prosper, while enhancing America's cybersecurity workforce and making the economy more secure?

Explore Cybersecurity

  • Testimony

    Perspective on 2015 DoD Cyber Strategy: Addendum

    Document submitted on February 23, 2016 as an addendum to testimony presented before the House Armed Services Committee on September 29, 2015.

    Feb 26, 2016

  • Cybersecurity "leak"


    Emerging Cyber Threats and Implications

    Cyberspace is expanding, becoming more vulnerable, and hosting increasingly vast amounts of data. Compounding this challenge is the growing number of bad actors seeking to exploit cyberspace. What steps can be taken to help mitigate emerging threats and improve U.S. cybersecurity?

    Feb 25, 2016

  • Group of friends holding their smart phones


    How You Can Be Cybersecurity's Strongest Asset

    Technology is thoroughly embedded within the average person's life but security is not emphasized to the general user. Teaching the importance of security early on and continually bringing awareness to the public could help temper technology-based attacks.

    Feb 18, 2016

  • Man using a laptop and drinking tea


    How Willing Are People to Allow Access to Their Internet Browsing History If It Helps National Security?

    A survey of over 26,000 citizens across the EU found that even in the event of a national emergency or limiting access of individuals' Internet usage to law enforcement agencies, there was still a strong aversion to information being stored or accessed.

    Feb 15, 2016

  • Journal Article

    Investing in Cybersecurity

    This research examines why, how and how much organisations in critical infrastructure sectors invest in cybersecurity.

    Feb 11, 2016

  • U.S. Defense Secretary Ash Carter meets with Chinese Gen. Fan Changlong, vice chairman of China's Central Military Commission, at the Pentagon, June 11, 2015


    OPM Hack Poses Overlooked Counterintelligence Risk for Economic Espionage

    Since discovering the theft of personal data from an OPM database last spring, government officials have been preoccupied with assessing the risks to national security. But they must also address its potential to enable an adversary to steal valuable economic and commercial information.

    Feb 1, 2016

  • Department of Homeland Security researchers work at the Idaho National Laboratory in Idaho Falls, April 28, 2010


    A Framework for Programming and Budgeting for Cybersecurity

    When defending an organization, cybersecurity professionals must choose from a large set of defensive measures while operating with a limited set of resources. What is the menu of actions for defending against an attack? And how can defenders navigate the selection process?

    Jan 20, 2016

  • Journal Article

    Cloud-Trust—a Security Assessment Model for Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Clouds

    The vulnerability of Cloud Computing Systems (CCSs) to Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs) is a significant concern to government and industry.

    Dec 23, 2015

  • A row of Iranian flags in front of the Tehran skyline


    Iran: A Rising Cyber Power?

    Iran is a country with revisionist tendencies that has accumulated enemies. This has impelled it to develop techniques to keep them at bay. Cyber, in some circumstances, is a particularly cost-effective way of doing so.

    Dec 16, 2015

  • Financial system representation


    The National Security Implications of Virtual Currency

    Could a non-state actor deploy a virtual currency to disrupt sovereignty and increase its political or economic power? How might a government or organization successfully disrupt such a deployment?

    Dec 16, 2015

  • Protesters from the online activist group Anonymous


    Anonymous vs. ISIS: Wishing the Vigilante Hackers Luck Against the Murderous Jihadists

    While ISIL uses the Internet to recruit fighters and incite violence, the Anonymous counter initiative could lower the volume of the online echo chamber, and yield support for the war against ISIL and its extremist ilk.

    Dec 14, 2015

  • Internet of Things graphic


    Keeping Hackers Away from Your Car, Fridge, and Front Door

    In the ever-growing Internet of Things, attackers already outpace the defenders. If developing solutions for software liability doesn't become more of a priority, there may be no winning this technological war.

    Dec 7, 2015

  • Close-up view on white conceptual keyboard - European Union (key with flag)


    Exploring Cybersecurity Threats and Policy Responses in the EU and Beyond

    Existing cybersecurity measures in the EU are fragmented, largely due to gaps in operational capabilities as well as strategic priorities of Member States. However, there are many policy options that may improve the EU's overall cybersecurity approach.

    Nov 18, 2015

  • A U.S. Air Force airman works at the 561st Network Operations Squadron, which executes defensive cyber operations


    The Two Sides of Cybersecurity

    Securing government networks is certainly necessary, but authorities should not lose sight of the need to couple their defense of America's networks with appropriate resources dedicated to combatting criminal, terrorist, and other threats in cyberspace.

    Nov 13, 2015

  • Journal Article

    Deterrence, Influence, Cyber Attack, and Cyberwar

    This study uses a simple model to speculate about whether deterrence can be a significant part of dealing with special features of the cyber attack challenge, and distinguishing different classes and contexts of cyber threats.

    Nov 13, 2015

  • Volkswagen CEO Matthias Mueller gives a tour of the VW factory in Wolfsburg, Germany, October 21, 2015


    When Public Trust in Corporations Is Shaken

    The Volkswagen scandal comes at a time when the public's trust in both the automotive industry and tech companies is at risk. The level of public trust in an individual organization could end up burnishing — or infecting — an entire industry or new technology.

    Oct 28, 2015

  • Research Brief

    Cybersecurity of Air Force Weapon Systems: Ensuring Cyber Mission Assurance Throughout a System's Life Cycle

    Discusses how the Air Force acquisition/life-cycle management community can improve cybersecurity throughout the life cycle of Air Force weapon systems.

    Oct 27, 2015

  • An F-15 flying over Nevada during a USAFWS Mission Employment Exercise


    Improving the Cybersecurity of U.S. Air Force Weapon Systems

    U.S. Air Force weapon systems containing information technology may be vulnerable to intelligence exploitation and cyberattacks. But there are steps that the Air Force can take to improve the security of these systems throughout their life cycles.

    Oct 27, 2015

  • Malware phishing data concept


    Social Engineering Explained: The Human Element in Cyberattacks

    The human element is the most unpredictable factor in cybersecurity. A social engineer aims to make people do what they want or give the social engineer information, often without the person considering the negative consequences.

    Oct 20, 2015

  • Congressional Briefing Podcast


    United States and China: Trends in Military Competition

    In this October 2015 congressional briefing, Eric Heginbotham discusses relative U.S. and Chinese military capabilities, including the evolution of Chinese military capabilities, steps the United States can take to limit the impact of a growing Chinese military on deterrence, and other U.S. strategic interests.

    Oct 5, 2015