International Economic Relations

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Increased international trade, and the lowering of barriers to such trade, frequently results in improved international relations, but it can also lead to trade wars and tariff disputes. RAND research explores bilateral and multilateral economic relations; describes how they affect global alliances, globalization, and the economic health of nations; and recommends methods to develop, encourage, and maintain these relations among diverse nations and cultures.

  • Russian President Vladimir Putin shakes hands with Chinese President Xi Jinping during their meeting on the sidelines of a BRICS summit, in Brasilia, Brazil, November 13, 2019, photo by Ramil Sitdikov/Sputnik via Reuters

    Report

    The Chinese-Russian Relationship and Its Risks to U.S. Interests

    Oct 12, 2021

    Over the past 70 years, China and Russia have experienced the full range of interstate relations, from conflict to alliance. Beijing and Moscow have become much closer since 2014, increasing political, military, and economic cooperation. What does this mean for the United States?

  • The Kumsusan Palace of the Sun, a mausoleum in Pyongyang, North Korea, photo by narvikk/iStock

    Report

    How Does North Korea Evade Sanctions?

    Sep 23, 2021

    The United Nations has imposed increasingly restrictive sanctions on North Korea after each of the six nuclear weapons tests that it conducted between 2009 and 2016. Enforcement has been mixed, and North Korea has become adept at several techniques to evade sanctions.

Explore International Economic Relations

  • Beijing street scene

    Commentary

    How China Sees America

    Just as Americans wonder whether China's rise is good for U.S. interests or represents a looming threat, Chinese policymakers puzzle over whether the United States intends to use its power to help or hurt China, write Andrew J. Nathan and Andrew Scobell.

    Sep 4, 2012

  • aircraft carrier USS George Washington

    Commentary

    Beijing Unflustered by Cool Ties With Seoul

    In light of deeply-rooted policy differences, so clearly on display in China’s treatment of South Korea over the past two years, no amount of tweaking around the margins of policy, inspired by internet polling, is likely to lead to dramatic improvements in the bilateral relationship, writes Scott Warren Harold.

    Aug 20, 2012

  • EU country dominoes

    Commentary

    Abandoning the Euro Would Devastate Greece

    Greece is best off doing whatever it takes to remain on the rescue program prescribed by the European Union and the International Monetary Fund, while tackling on its own the structural constraints to growth, writes Charles Ries.

    Aug 17, 2012

  • News Release

    News Release

    United States Should Encourage India to Take a Greater Role in Afghanistan

    India and Pakistan each have a stake in influencing developments in Afghanistan and both countries engage in Afghanistan to advance their own respective geopolitical, defense, and economic objectives. However, India has far more to offer.

    Aug 8, 2012

  • Soldiers discussing combined operations in Afghanistan, July 16, 2012

    Report

    United States Should Encourage India to Take a Greater Role in Afghanistan

    India and Pakistan each have a stake in influencing developments in Afghanistan and both countries engage in Afghanistan to advance their own respective geopolitical, defense, and economic objectives. However, India has far more to offer.

    Aug 8, 2012

  • An oil barrel

    Commentary

    Assessing the Iranian Sanctions

    The sanctions have imposed economic costs and have effectively signaled that not only the United States, but much of the rest of the world, see Iran's policies on nuclear enrichment as a serious potential threat to the region and the world, writes Keith Crane.

    Jul 9, 2012

  • Journal Article

    Journal Article

    The Fading Arab Oil Empire

    The author discusses the geostrategic importance of the Middle East.

    Jul 1, 2012

  • Report

    Report

    U.S. Air Force Engagement with Turkey on Energy Security Looks Promising

    Turkey aspires to become a key transit state for moving both natural gas and oil from the Caspian region and from the broader Middle East via pipelines crossing its territory. U.S.-Turkish cooperation on energy security issues offers a promising yet modest opportunity to strengthen the bilateral relationship.

    Jun 19, 2012

  • Report

    Report

    What Can Be Done to Increase Asia's Sea-Lane Security?

    The sea lanes that supply Asia's energy needs are already vulnerable to geopolitical concerns and the threat of piracy. One approach to protecting them would be employ multiple U.S. military and government elements; a second would be to promote the capabilities of and cooperation among nations in the region.

    Jun 19, 2012

  • News Release

    News Release

    U.S. Military's Role with Petroleum Is to Assure Security

    Energy purchases made by the U.S. Department of Defense do not influence world oil prices, making cutting fuel use the only effective choice to reduce what the Pentagon spends on petroleum fuels.

    Jun 18, 2012

  • Report

    Report

    Anti-Corruption Regulations in Emerging and Expeditionary Markets: New Markets, New Challenges

    This document synthesizes the discussion from a roundtable symposium RAND convened in January 2012 to explore the practical difficulties facing companies in complying with anti-corruption mandates and the challenges of corruption in foreign markets.

    Jun 15, 2012

  • Industrial and Commercial Bank of China

    Commentary

    Questions After the First U.S. Bank Takeover by a Chinese State-Controlled Company

    In considering foreign application to acquire U.S. companies, the United States needs to consider both risks as well as benefits in both defense and economic dimensions, write Charles Wolf, Jr., Brian Chow, Gregory Jones, and Scott Harold.

    May 15, 2012

  • Fabric flags of China and Iran

    Blog

    Examining the Relationship Between China and Iran

    The partnership between China and Iran presents challenges to U.S. interests, including dissuading Iran from developing a nuclear weapons capability.

    May 3, 2012

  • Report

    Report

    The Nature of the Chinese-Iranian Partnership and the Challenges It Poses for the U.S.

    The partnership between China and Iran presents challenges to U.S. interests, including dissuading Iran from developing a nuclear weapons capability. An analysis of the factors driving Chinese-Iranian cooperation offers policy options for influencing this partnership to meet U.S. objectives.

    May 2, 2012

  • Report

    Report

    The United States, Japan, and Free Trade: Moving in the Same Direction?

    Assesses the factors contributing to the decisions by the United States and Japan to join the Trans-Pacific Partnership, and the meaning of those decisions for bilateral cooperation on trade expansion.

    Apr 23, 2012

  • Research Brief

    Research Brief

    What’s the Potential for Conflict with China, and How Can It Be Avoided?

    Presents scenarios to illustrate possible sources of military conflict with China over the next thirty years.

    Apr 17, 2012

  • Map showing border between United States and Mexico

    Report

    United States and Mexico: Ties That Bind, Issues That Divide

    This binational reference for U.S. and Mexican policymakers presents the interrelated issues of Mexican immigration to the United States and Mexico's economic and social development.

    Apr 11, 2012

  • Journal Article

    Journal Article

    Strategic Value of African Tribal Art: Auction Sales Trends as Cultural Intelligence

    This paper explores the potential of the art market for open-source intelligence assessments of cultural security.

    Apr 1, 2012

  • An Iranian worker rests in front of a huge portrait of Iran's Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei on a wall near a university during Friday prayers in Tehran, February 24, 2012

    Commentary

    Khamenei: The Nuclear Decision-maker

    Many Iranians are increasingly concerned that the supreme leader is taking Iran down a dangerous path and is unwilling to turn back, whatever the pressures, writes Alireza Nader.

    Feb 23, 2012

  • Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad exits a plane as he arrives in Kerman province, southeast of Iran, January 26, 2012

    Commentary

    Is Regime Change in Iran the Only Solution?

    The United States should not pursue sanctions with the intent of changing the regime, but to contain it in order to give Iranians a chance to effect change themselves, writes Alireza Nader.

    Jan 26, 2012