International Trade

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International trade—business conducted across national borders—drives GDP and directly and indirectly affects global alliances, globalization, and the economic health of nations. RAND research has examined international trade in contexts as diverse as arms trafficking, the drug trade, international nuclear commerce, trade unions, the U.S.-China trade deficit, and economic investment in Ukraine.

  • An employee works as grains are loaded in a special transport cargo bound for Egypt, in the Black Sea port of Constanta, Romania, May 11, 2022, photo by Olimpiu Gheorghiu/Reuters

    Commentary

    Unblocking the Black Sea for Ukrainian Grain

    Jun 15, 2022

    As Russia has been blockading ports around Odesa, Ukrainian grain exports in May were more than 60 percent lower than a year ago. Global hunger has hit a new high while 22 million tons of grain in Ukraine could rot if not exported soon.

  • A student listens through headphones to an exercise in a Spanish class in Steveange, UK, photo by Ian Miles/Flashpoint Pictures/Alamy

    Essay

    The Economic Returns of Foreign Language Learning

    Jul 7, 2022

    If just 10 percent more students in the United Kingdom mastered Arabic, Mandarin, French, or Spanish, the economic returns could be measured in billions of British pounds. Removing the language barrier reduces trade costs.

Explore International Trade

  • Journal Article

    Journal Article

    The Soviet Financial System: Its Development and Relations with the Western World

    Review of a book: The Soviet Financial System: Its Development and Relations with the Western World, by Mikhail V. Condoide.

    Jan 1, 1963

  • Report

    Report

    The trade agreements of Communist China

    A paper on the nature and significance of the trade agreements of Communist China. The author examines the provisions of the trade agreements, their relation to other international economic agreements, the available but incomplete statistics of the t...

    Jan 1, 1961

  • People

    People

    Rafiq Dossani

    Director, RAND Center for Asia Pacific Policy; Senior Economist; Professor of Policy Analysis, Pardee RAND Graduate School
    Education Ph.D. in finance, Northwestern University; M.B.A. in finance & economics, Indian Institute of Management, Calcutta; B.A. in economics, St. Stephen's College, Delhi

  • People

    People

    Eliane Dufresne

    Analyst
    Education M.Sc. in public policy and development, Toulouse School of Economics

  • People

    People

    Daniel Egel

    Senior Economist
    Education Ph.D. in economics, University of California, Berkeley; B.A. in biology, University of Chicago

  • People

    People

    Christopher A. Eusebi

    Senior Adjunct Researcher
    Education J.D. in intellectual property, University of Detroit; M.S. and M.S. in materials engineering, Michigan State University

  • People

    People

    Marco Hafner

    Senior Economist; Research Leader
    Education M.Sc. in economics, University of Zurich; M.Phil. in economics, University College of London

  • People

    People

    Sam Morales

    Quantitative Analyst
    Education M.P.P. in public policy, University of Virginia; B.A. in economics, Boston College

  • People

    People

    C. Richard Neu

    Adjunct Staff; Professor, Pardee RAND Graduate School
    Education B.S. in economics, California Institute of Technology; M.A. in economics, Harvard University; Ph.D. in economics, Harvard University

  • People

    People

    Charles P. Ries

    Adjunct Senior Fellow
    Education M.A. and B.A. in international affairs, Johns Hopkins University

  • People

    People

    Howard J. Shatz

    Senior Economist; Professor of Policy Analysis, Pardee RAND Graduate School
    Education Ph.D. in public policy, Harvard University; M.I.A. in international policy analysis and management, Middle East studies, School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University; Post-graduate study in Middle East studies, Tel Aviv University; A.B. in history, Brown University

  • People

    People

    Tobias Sytsma

    Associate Economist
    Education Ph.D. in economics, University of Oregon; M.S. in intl and dev economics, University of San Francisco; B.S. in economics, Portland State University

  • People

    People

    Elisa Yoshiara

    Ph.D. Student, Pardee RAND Graduate School, and Assistant Policy Researcher, RAND
    Education M.P.P. in public policy, Georgetown University; B.A. in peace and conflict studies, U.C. Berkeley