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Childhood is generally defined as the period of life between birth and adulthood, but children can also be characterized by their stage of development, including prenatal, infant, toddler, school-age, pre-pubescent, and teen or adolescent. RAND research on children covers the prenatal period to age 18 and spans multiple research areas, including health, education, criminal justice, and safety.

  • Members of youth soccer teams walk onto the field with the Philadelphia Union before a match against the Portland Timbers at Talen Energy Stadium, Philadelphia, Pa., May 25, 2019, photo by Eric Hartline/USA Today Sports via Reuters

    Report

    Kids from Low-Income Families Are Less Likely to Participate in Sports

    Jul 18, 2019

    Parents, school administrators, and community sports program leaders agree that sports participation provides kids with benefits. But only 52 percent of lower-income parents involve their children in sports, compared with 66 percent of higher-income parents, in part because of rising costs and time commitments.

  • Sleeping baby with adult hand holding baby's hand, photo by Amax Photo/Getty Images

    Commentary

    Policies That Punish Pregnant Women for Substance Use Don't Help Mother or Baby

    Jan 28, 2020

    About half of all U.S. states now have policies that criminalize substance use during pregnancy, consider it grounds for civil commitment, or consider it child abuse or neglect. But research suggests that punitive policies aren't beneficial for infants or their mothers.

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