Pittsburgh has been taking a hard look at race, wealth, and opportunity. In partnership with RAND, the city has run and published its numbers on subjects ranging from police contacts to business ownership to graduation rates as part of a commitment to do better.
Neighborhood characteristics such as a higher unemployment rate and greater perceptions of safety appear to influence initiation of marijuana use and binge drinking, respectively. The mechanisms appear to be distinct for each substance.
Monitoring parts 4 days/week, 4 times/day is sufficient to estimate park use, park user characteristics, and physical activity. Applying these observation methods can augment physical activity surveillance.
Summarizes key RAND studies on the causes of obesity, its economic and health consequences, and potential strategies for prevention, including work on health care costs, junk food, food deserts, school meals, and proximity of parks.
This study compared the cost-effectiveness of different public interventions for promoting exercise and found that community-based campaigns and school-based interventions have the greatest potential to be scaled up at the lowest costs.
Older women who live in a lower socioeconomic status neighborhood are more likely to exhibit lower cognitive functioning than women who live in more affluent neighborhoods—regardless of their own education level or income.
Pessimism, a general tendency toward negative expectancies, is a risk factor for depression and also heart disease, stroke, and reduced cancer survival. There is evidence that individuals with higher lead exposure have poorer health. However, low socioeconomic status (SES) is linked with higher lead ...
Using surveillance data, researchers identified neighborhoods in a Georgia county with a persistently high incidence of cardiac arrest and low rates of bystander CPR. Such neighborhoods are promising targets for community-based interventions.
Some cognitive behavioral theories, including self-efficacy and social norms, can help explain risky drug injection behaviors, while others, such as perceived susceptibility and perceived barriers, have yielded inconsistent or inconclusive results.