Pittsburgh has been taking a hard look at race, wealth, and opportunity. In partnership with RAND, the city has run and published its numbers on subjects ranging from police contacts to business ownership to graduation rates as part of a commitment to do better.
Some cognitive behavioral theories, including self-efficacy and social norms, can help explain risky drug injection behaviors, while others, such as perceived susceptibility and perceived barriers, have yielded inconsistent or inconclusive results.
This fact sheet summarizes a study examining the variation of the intake of fruits and vegetables for blacks, whites, and Mexican Americans, in addition to the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic status and this intake.
Neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) is positively associated with fruit and vegetable intake. Neighborhood SES partially explains black-white intake disparity and is differentially associated with white, black, and Mexican American intake.
Estimates place effects on racial health disparities. Controlling for a single point-in-time measure of residential context results in a 15-76% reduction of black/white disparities in self-rated health not accounted for by individual-level controls.
As the obesity epidemic worsens, researchers are zeroing in on environmental factors that may contribute to the problem or, conversely, help to prevent it. It is increasingly clear that neighborhoods play an important role in stimulating exercise and reducing the risk of obesity.
Parks provide places for people to experience nature, engage in physical activity, and relax. The authors studied how residents in low-income, minority communities use neighborhood parks and how parks contribute to physical activity.
Large racial disparities in completion rates from substance abuse treatment programs in urban settings remain largely unexplained, although evidence is accumulating that neighborhood conditions may influence individual substance abuse patterns and consequences.
People in Los Angeles like their neighborhood parks, and are most likely to use them if they are close to home and have supervised activities. Officials should consider adding park space throughout the city and including more facilities such as running tracks and trails.
Adolescent girls who live within one-half mile of a public park are significantly more physically active than other girls. Parks with amenities such as basketball courts, playgrounds and walking paths were associated with more physical activity than parks with picnic areas and lawn games.
Traditional thinking about health in America has been that individuals alone decide whether to engage in unhealthy behaviors. However, the conditions in which individuals live may also contribute to their health and longevity.