Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

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Combat veterans and survivors of violence, natural disasters, and terrorism have often experienced disturbing events that may lead to psychological trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). RAND research has evaluated the delivery of post-deployment mental health care to combat veterans, examined the treatment capacity of health care systems in response to PTSD, and estimated the costs of providing quality mental health care to all affected individuals.

  • A young girl holding a teddy bear

    Research Brief

    Helping Kids and Families Cope with Violence

    Mar 30, 2017

    Kids who have been exposed to violence are more likely to develop mental health problems and engage in risky behaviors. The need for interventions to help them is clear, but evidence about what works is still emerging. What can be learned from studying Safe Start Promising Approaches?

  • Multimedia

    Healing the Invisible Wounds of War with Virtual Reality

    Nov 8, 2018

    In this episode of Veterans in America, we hear the story of Joe Merritt, a former Marine and Army National Guard soldier, and learn about an effective evidence-based treatment for PTSD: virtual reality exposure therapy.

Explore Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

  • Army husband and wife

    Commentary

    Four Ways to Help Military Caregivers

    As momentum continues to build, stakeholders across the board should keep in mind four broad recommendations for how to help military caregivers.

    Apr 15, 2014

  • News Release

    1.1 Million Americans Providing Care to Military Members Who Served Since 9/11

    More than 1.1 million spouses, parents, and friends are caring for the injured and disabled who have served in the U.S. military since Sept. 11, 2001, often doing so without a formal support network and putting their own well-being at risk.

    Mar 31, 2014

  • wife welcoming soldier home on Army leave

    Commentary

    A World Without America's Military Caregivers

    A world without military caregivers would be a harsher one for all, particularly for those who have served. Caregivers' sacrifices improve the lives of wounded, ill, and injured service members and veterans, more of whom would suffer without them.

    Mar 31, 2014

  • young soldier with wife

    Report

    Hidden Heroes: America's Military Caregivers — Executive Summary

    This summary distills a longer report, Hidden Heroes: America's Military Caregivers . It describes the magnitude of military caregiving in the United States, identifies gaps in support services, and offers recommendations.

    Mar 31, 2014

  • soldier welcomed home from Afghanistan, photo by Capt. Charlie Dietz/U.S. Army

    Report

    Hidden Heroes: America's Military Caregivers

    There are 5.5 million military caregivers across the United States, with nearly 20 percent caring for someone who served since the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001. Military caregivers experience more health problems, face greater strains in family relationships, and have more workplace issues than noncaregivers. Changes are needed to both provide assistance to caregivers and to help them make plans for the future.

    Mar 31, 2014

  • senior couple smiling

    Research Brief

    Who Are Military Caregivers? And Who Is Supporting Them?

    There are 5.5 million Americans caring for wounded, ill, and injured service members and veterans, providing indispensable services and saving the nation millions in health and long-term care costs. Researchers describe who these caregivers are, the burden they bear, available programs and resources, and areas where they need more support.

    Mar 31, 2014

  • working in office with computer and phone

    Research Brief

    Military Caregivers in the Workplace

    The business community can support military caregivers in many ways: raise awareness by promoting messages that support military caregivers, offer support services, work with employees to accomodate their caregiver duties, and hire caregivers.

    Mar 31, 2014

  • husband and wife with doctor

    Research Brief

    Supporting Military Caregivers: The Role of Health Providers

    Health care providers can support military caregivers in many ways: acknowledge them as part of the health care team, routinely assess caregiving needs and the presence of caregiver support, integrate them into health providers' culture, and adopt appropriate caregiver documentation requirements to facilitate their engagement.

    Mar 31, 2014

  • U.S. Capitol in spring

    Research Brief

    Supporting Military Caregivers: Options for Congress

    Congress can support military caregivers in many ways: reconsider eligibility requirements for caregiver support programs, ensure health care coverage for military caregivers, promote the integration and coordination of programs and services, and fully fund the Lifespan Respite Care Act.

    Mar 31, 2014

  • paper dolls in a circle

    Research Brief

    Support Resources for Military Caregivers

    Caregiving can take a lot of time and impose a heavy burden on caregiver health and well-being. But finding and utilizing support resources can help. Support services for military caregivers may provide respite care, financial stipends, health care and mental health care services, and more.

    Mar 31, 2014

  • woman hugging soldier

    Project

    The RAND Military Caregivers Study

    The RAND Military Caregivers Study focuses on caregivers of wounded, ill, and injured U.S. military servicemembers and veterans.

    Mar 18, 2014

  • Sgt. First Class Richard Martinez is given the Milton Award that recognizes achievements in military intelligence during a redeployment ceremony

    Commentary

    Dear Military Spouses: I'm Sorry

    Kayla Williams describes her difficult transition from soldier to spouse, sergeant to civilian, team leader to caregiver. Two books by military wives opened her eyes to the challenges and rewards of marrying into the military, and the unique kind of service military families experience.

    Feb 27, 2014

  • Soldier in wheelchair with U.S. Flag in distance

    Report

    Health and Economic Outcomes in the Alumni of the Wounded Warrior Project: 2010–2012

    This report describes how Wounded Warrior Project alumnus respondents are faring in domains related to mental health and resiliency, physical health, and employment and finances.

    Feb 24, 2014

  • Air Force veteran Cherokee was the lead organizer of an event in January in Reading, Pa. to help feed and clothe local veterans, many of whom are homeless

    Commentary

    Will America Forget Its Veterans?

    The needs of U.S. veterans will not end when the war does; they will just be beginning. Though over a lifetime veterans are more highly educated, employed, and paid than their civilian counterparts, the period of reintegration can be challenging.

    Feb 18, 2014

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    News Release

    Lasting Consequences of World War II Means More Illness, Lower Education, and Fewer Chances to Marry for Survivors

    Experiencing World War II is associated with a greater chance of suffering from diabetes, depression, and heart disease as adults. And because so many men died during the war, fewer women married and many children were left to grow up without fathers.

    Jan 21, 2014

  • Contractor personnel inspect an Afghan national police facility

    Commentary

    Out of the Shadows, Into the Light: Why Americans Should Care About the Health of Contractors Deploying to Conflict Environments

    In contrast to the numerous mental health resources available to members of the U.S. military, very few (if any) resources are available to help private contractors struggling with mental health problems. It is in the best interest of all involved to ensure that contractors receive the support and treatment they need.

    Jan 21, 2014

  • A soldier evaluates the new EMR system

    Research Brief

    The RAND Toolkit for Improving Programs that Address Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury

    The four-part RAND toolkit is designed to help those overseeing portfolios of multiple programs understand, evaluate, and improve program performance. This research brief describes the purpose of each part.

    Jan 8, 2014

  • U.S. Army,82nd Airborne,Toy Drop,Fort Bragg,Parachute,Air Jump,Pope Air Force base,Army Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations Command (Airborn,X-Mas,Toys

    Report

    A Systematic Process to Facilitate Evidence-Informed Decisionmaking Regarding Program Expansion: The RAND Toolkit, Volume 3

    Despite supporting more than 200 psychological health and traumatic brain injury programs, the Department of Defense lacks a way to develop, track, and assess the performance of this portfolio. RAND researchers developed a toolkit to support decision-making regarding continued program support and expansion.

    Jan 8, 2014

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    Report

    The Development and Application of the RAND Program Classification Tool: The RAND Toolkit, Volume 1

    The RAND Program Classification Tool is an instrument containing questions and response options across eight key domains that allows for the consistent description of programs in the same content area. Such data can help program portfolio managers compare programs, avoid duplication, and target technical assistance.

    Jan 8, 2014

  • marines,Camp Leatherneck,Afghanistan,PTSD,stress,combat,concussions,IED,injury,mental

    Report

    The RAND Online Measure Repository for Evaluating Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury Programs: The RAND Toolkit, Volume 2

    The RAND Online Measure Repository is a tool that contains descriptions of 171 measures to support monitoring and evaluation of psychological health and Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) programs. Detailed information is provided for each measure in an online searchable database, including measure domains, uses, psychometrics, and costs.

    Jan 8, 2014