Racial Equity

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RAND research has addressed racial equity from several angles. Studies have explored such topics as disparities in the U.S. criminal justice system, unequal economic opportunities and barriers to employment for people of color, the achievement gap between minority and nonminority students, and how differences in access to quality health care can affect individual and community health and well-being.

  • Graduates of City College of New York (CCNY) at its 169th commencement ceremony on June 3, 2022, photo by Erik McGregor/Sipa USA/Reuters

    Tool

    How Does Racial Bias Compound Over Time?

    Jul 27, 2022

    Even small amounts of racial bias in education, income, and wealth can compound over time to create significant differences in outcomes. A new tool illustrates how varying degrees of bias can add up to large inequities over lifetimes and generations.

  • Aerial map image by Google Earth

    Essay

    Environmental Racism: How Historic Redlining Continues to Affect Communities

    Jun 27, 2022

    Starting in the 1930s, neighborhoods across America were redlined—marked on government maps as too hazardous, as in, too Black or too immigrant, for federal home loans. When zoning officials needed somewhere to put a new factory or freeway, those redlined neighborhoods were like a bullseye that they hit again and again.

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