Security Cooperation


The NATO alliance served its participants well in countering the strategic threat once posed by the Soviet Union, but the rise of other regional powers and coalitions since end of the Cold War has prompted a reevaluation of existing alliances. RAND research has provided policymakers with essential information on how best to forge new defense cooperation agreements and strengthen old alliances to counter emerging security threats.

  • Research Brief

    How Could the United States Gain Greater Access to Asia During a Conflict?

    Ensuring access to the territories of Indo-Pacific allies and partners in the event of a future conflict with China is a critical concern. How are Japan, the Philippines, Singapore, Indonesia, and India likely to make access decisions? And can the United States influence their decisions?

    Nov 28, 2023

  • Report

    South Korea Needs Greater Nuclear Assurance

    With growing nuclear threats from North Korea and China, there has been considerable interest in South Korea in developing its own nuclear weapons. But doing so could become a major disaster. The United States should bring greater strategic clarity to its nuclear umbrella commitment to South Korea.

    Oct 29, 2023

Explore Security Cooperation

  • F-16 fighters from Poland on air policing mission along NATO allied air space, March 24, 2022, photo by EyePress News/Reuters


    F-16s Will Bolster Ukraine's Fighting Force

    F-16s going to Ukraine could help it defend against Russian aerial assaults. But their greatest value may be to augment future Ukrainian counteroffensives aimed at retaking occupied land. This will require training and exercising, but Ukrainian forces are fully capable of mastering it.

    May 25, 2023

  • Kazakhstan President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev at the military parade to mark Victory Day in Red Square in Moscow, Russia, May 9, 2023, photo by EyePress News/Reuters


    Advancing U.S. Relationships in Central Asia: An Opportunity Not to Be Squandered

    Concerned about Putin's imperialist actions in Ukraine, five nations in Central Asia are looking to the West to offset the political, economic, and security-related pressures they feel from Russia and, increasingly, China. It would be a mistake for the United States not to seize this moment.

    May 25, 2023

  • The German Navy's task force supply ship


    Navigating Complex Maritime Security Challenges in the Black and Mediterranean Seas: Insights from the Updated EUMSS

    The European Union understands the rising geopolitical challenges that will affect security in the Black and Mediterranean Seas, both from non-state actors and as a result of state-based competition and conflict. Cooperation with non-EU countries will be critical in promoting maritime security in the region.

    May 25, 2023

  • Polish and American soldiers take part in NATO's Defender Europe 2022 military exercise at the military range in Bemowo Piskie, Poland. May 24, 2022, photo by Kacper Pempel/Reuters


    Does America Still Need Europe?

    The United States should be discriminating in its choice of global commitments. But if critical U.S. interests are at stake in Europe, then Washington should take the necessary steps to maintain NATO unity and European stability.

    May 22, 2023

  • RAND Weekly Recap


    Extremism, Medicaid, Florida's 'Don't Say Gay' Law: RAND Weekly Recap

    This weekly recap focuses on addressing domestic extremism, managing reductions in Medicaid enrollment, the effects of Florida's “Don't Say Gay” law, and more.

    May 19, 2023

  • Brezhnev and Nixon talk during Brezhnev's June 1973 visit to Washington during the beginning of detente between the United States and the Soviet Union, photo by World History Archive/Alamy

    Research Brief

    What Should Future U.S. Policy Toward Russia Be in Peacetime?

    Russia's invasion of Ukraine has made a constructive U.S.-Russia relationship implausible for the foreseeable future. But once the fighting stops, the United States will continue to face long-term incentives to improve the stability and predictability of its relations with Moscow.

    May 17, 2023

  • Russian Sukhoi Su-25 Frogfoot ground-attack planes release smoke in the colours of the Russian flag during a rehearsal for the Victory Day parade in Moscow, Russia June 20, 2020, photo by Evgenia Novozhenina/Reuters


    Future U.S. Peacetime Policy Toward Russia: Exploring the Benefits and Costs of a Less-Hardline Approach

    Using four historical case studies, the authors found that limited less-hardline approaches can lead to durable but narrow gains. However, issues left unaddressed by these approaches may still undermine the relationship over the long term.

    May 17, 2023

  • Report


    U.S. Major Combat Operations in the Indo-Pacific: Partner and Ally Views

    This report, one of two, focuses on whether partners and allies have the willingness to support U.S. operations in a major Indo-Pacific conflict. The companion report focuses on technical and operational issues.

    May 16, 2023

  • Andenes, Norway, <a href=


    What Is Next for the Arctic Council in the Wake of Russian Rule?

    Norway recently took over chairmanship of the Arctic Council from Russia under conditions never before experienced by the organization in its 27-year history. Despite the current uncertainties, there could be ways to move past the stalemate between Russia and the other council members.

    May 15, 2023

  • U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken, left, meets with Vietnam's Communist Party General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong in Hanoi, Vietnam, April 15, 2023, photo by Andrew Harnik/Pool via Reuters


    Biden Hopes for Vietnam Breakthrough

    The United States wants to intensify U.S.-Vietnam ties, because the two countries share long-term strategic interests. Vietnam seems perfectly fine with things dragging on for years in their current state, avoiding a final decision, or even getting cold feet in the end. Washington would be wise to manage expectations for now.

    May 12, 2023

  • Two U.S. Air Force F-16 Fighting Falcon aircraft fly over Iraq and Syria, July 17, 2021, pTwo U.S. Air Force F-16 Fighting Falcon aircraft fly over Iraq and Syria, July 17, 2021


    Why Does Ukraine Want Western Jets?

    Ever since Russia invaded Ukraine in February 2022, Ukraine has requested Western fighter jets. Why does it want them? Of what use could they be? And what are some of their limitations?

    May 3, 2023

  • Report


    Gaining the Edge: Identifying and Leveraging Frameworks for Enabling Army Contributions to Competition

    This report supports the U.S. Army's effort to rethink its roles and responsibilities to meet the demands of competition with near peers below the threshold of armed conflict.

    May 2, 2023

  • RAND Weekly Recap


    Environmental Justice, Mental Health Care, Insomnia: RAND Weekly Recap

    This weekly recap focuses on environmental justice, access to mental health care, why America should stick with Europe. and more.

    Apr 21, 2023

  • Polish and American soldiers stand near their armored vehicles during NATO exercises at the military range in Bemowo Piskie, near Orzysz, Poland, May 24, 2022, photo by Kacper Pempel/Reuters


    Stick with Europe

    The United States' chief competitive advantage in the contest with China is its dominant global network of friends and allies. Now is the time to strengthen those coveted ties—in Europe and elsewhere.

    Apr 17, 2023

  • U.S., Australia and UK flags in front of the USS Asheville , a Los Angeles–class submarine, at HMAS Stirling, Western Australia, March 14, 2023, photo by AAPIMAGE via Reuters Connect


    Why China Should Worry About Asia's Reaction to AUKUS

    If most Indo-Pacific nations support AUKUS—or refuse to condemn it—then Beijing will have more geostrategic and military implications to worry about than AUKUS itself. As long as AUKUS continues to assuage nuclear-proliferation concerns, then the region will view it as a legitimate counter to Chinese military excesses.

    Apr 15, 2023

  • Volodymyr Zelenskyy, Emmanuel Macron, and Olaf Scholz meet at Elysee Palace in Parisé, photo by Ukrainian Presidency via ABACAPRESS.COM/Reuters


    Europe: Ukraine's Essential Ally

    While the United States is Ukraine's primary military backer, Europe is sharing the war's overall burden, sanctioning Russia, arming Ukraine, and helping prepare it to join the European Union, as well as absorbing huge economic costs. Europe's partnership with the United States on Ukraine may be Western diplomacy's finest hour since the Berlin Wall fell.

    Apr 10, 2023

  • RAND Weekly Recap


    Dementia and National Security, Finland Joins NATO, the Four-Day School Week: RAND Weekly Recap

    This weekly recap focuses on the risk that dementia could pose to national security, Finland's NATO membership, the downside of a four-day school week, and more.

    Apr 7, 2023

  • Finland's flag is raised at NATO headquarters in Brussels, Belgium, April 4, 2023, photo by EyePress News/Reuters


    Finland Joins NATO, Sweden's Accession Remains Uncertain

    Finland is at long last joining NATO, having applied together with Sweden last year in response to Russia's invasion of Ukraine. Finland's accession represents a boon to NATO, a radical change in Finnish foreign and security policy, and another unplanned setback for Russia.

    Apr 4, 2023

  • Journal Article

    Journal Article

    Norway's Next Long-Term Defence Plan: An Allied Perspective

    As Norway contemplates the priorities for its next Long-Term Defence Plan (LTP), it finds itself in a Europe, a NATO, and a global environment that have all changed markedly since the last iteration of the Plan was released in 2020.

    Mar 28, 2023

  • Japanese Prime Minister Fumio Kishida and U.S. President Joe Biden walk through the colonnade of the White House in Washington, D.C., January 13, 2023, photo by Mandel Ngan/Pool/Reuters


    Japan's New Security Policies: A Long Road to Full Implementation

    The historic ambition contained within Japan's new defense strategies is notable. But the reality is that an extraordinary alignment of political, economic, fiscal, and other stars will be necessary for Japan's government to fully implement their stated ambitions over the next five to ten years.

    Mar 27, 2023