Teacher Incentives


  • Essay

    A Four-Day School Week? Here Are the Costs and Benefits

    Hundreds of small school districts across America have cut one day a week from their calendars. A shorter school week helps them compete for teachers and reduce costs. Teachers and parents love it. But is it really in the best interests of students?

    Aug 31, 2023

  • Report

    All Work and No Pay: Teachers' Perceptions of Their Pay and Hours Worked

    Since the pandemic, there have been some positive improvements in teacher well-being. However, teachers in some states are still leaving their jobs at rates higher than before COVID-19 hit. How might salary and work hours affect their decisions to leave?

    Sep 12, 2023

Explore Teacher Incentives

  • Back view of a classroom with elementary students raising their hands and a teacher, focus on a Black girl in the foreground, photo by skynesher/Getty Images


    The Four-Day School Week: Are the Pros Worth the Cons?

    The past two decades have seen an explosion in the adoption of the four-day school week. Against this growing trend, however, there is increasing evidence that, by and large, a four-day school week causes student achievement to suffer.

    Apr 6, 2023

  • Students draw in class at Wilder Elementary School in Louisville, Kentucky, August 11, 2021, photo by Amira Karaoud/Reuters

    Research Brief

    Benefits and Drawbacks of the Four-Day School Week

    A four-day school week is becoming more common, especially in states with large rural areas. Champions of the shorter week contend that it saves money, improves student attendance, and helps recruit and retain teachers to rural districts. But what does the evidence say?

    Oct 7, 2021

  • Report


    Does Four Equal Five? Implementation and Outcomes of the Four-Day School Week

    The authors provide information on the implementation and outcomes of the four-day school week using quantitative and qualitative data from a variety of sources, including surveys of parents and students in 36 districts in three states.

    Oct 7, 2021

  • A schoolgirl works through a textbook with her teacher in elementary class, in Hexham, Northumberland, photo by SolStock/Getty Images


    What Factors Affecting Retention Matter Most to Teachers?

    Maintaining an adequate supply of teachers is a challenge and an area of significant concern. Rather than a one-size-fits-all approach, a set of interventions developed to target the preferences and expectations of specific groups of teachers is likely to be most effective.

    Apr 5, 2021

  • Two teachers receiving advice, photo by julief514/Getty Images

    Research Brief

    Results from the Intensive Partnerships for Effective Teaching Initiative

    A multiyear effort aimed at increasing students' access to effective teaching failed to achieve its goals for improved student achievement and graduation. However, the participating school districts and charter management organizations did implement better measures of teaching effectiveness.

    Feb 11, 2019

  • Collage of 2018 most popular research images


    The Most Popular RAND Research of 2018

    RAND serves as an objective source of facts that help inform the world's most pressing policy debates. When decisions are based on the best evidence, that's when public policy can have a positive impact on people's lives. We're highlighting the 10 research projects that RAND.org readers found most engaging this year.

    Dec 21, 2018

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    Impacts of the Intensive Partnerships Initiative

    The Intensive Partnerships for Effective Teaching initiative enhanced how teachers are evaluated and improved teacher staffing policies. But it did not lead to gains in student achievement or graduation rates.

    Jun 21, 2018

  • Report


    'Motivating teachers with incentivised pay and coaching' randomised control trial (ICR trial): Closure report: Understanding factors influencing participant recruitment failure

    After recruitment issues had led to the cancellation of a randomised controlled trial on the impact of incentivised pay on teaching in the UK, RAND Europe conducted a follow-up investigation exploring the reasons behind the recruitment difficulties.

    Feb 5, 2018

  • High school student talking to a teacher near lockers


    The Hidden Costs of Pension Plan Reform

    While there are many policy options that may decrease pension liabilities for Chicago and cities and states in similar situations, some options being considered may also have serious consequences for the public sector workforce, now and in the future.

    May 18, 2016

  • Teacher helping schoolboy.

    Research Brief

    How Different Pension Policies Can Impact Teacher Retention

    A dynamic retention model can help policymakers concerned with mounting pension costs estimate and analyze the relationship between different retirement benefit policies and retention over the career of Chicago public school teachers.

    May 2, 2016

  • Young male teacher


    Retirement Benefits and Teacher Retention

    There is little capacity to predict how recent pension reforms and changes to teacher compensation will affect teacher turnover and teacher experience mix—and in turn—potentially impact the cost and efficacy of the public education system. Research using a structural modeling approach may begin to fill that gap.

    May 2, 2016

  • Dissertation


    Three Essays on Education Reform in the United States

    Examines California's state education accountability reform and comprehensive reform to improve teacher and principal talent in high-poverty, low-performing schools.

    Sep 29, 2014

  • Report


    Evaluating Efforts to Improve School Leadership

    Improving school leadership may improve student outcomes. Evaluation is critical for effective use of resources, but poses challenges to states and districts. Evaluators and policymakers should allow time for improvements to show, use multiple evaluation measures, and interpret findings carefully.

    Oct 4, 2012

  • group of teachers

    Research Brief

    Evaluating Efforts to Improve School Leadership

    Efforts to improve school leadership may improve student outcomes. Evaluation is critical for effective use of resources, but it poses challenges. Evaluators and policymakers should allow time for improvements to show, use multiple evaluation measures, and interpret findings carefully before applying them to others.

    Oct 4, 2012

  • elementary students with teacher


    Focusing on K-12 Education

    In the area of K–12 education, RAND Education partners with policymakers, school systems, practitioners, and other stakeholders to help improve education outcomes and systems and to increase access and equity.

    Sep 4, 2012

  • A principal talking to a student and his parent in her office


    School Principals Respond to Performance-Based Evaluation System

    It's fair to say the program turned out to be an important step for the district in the context of its overall reform plan considering how important high-quality school leadership is for improving teaching and learning, write Laura Hamilton and John Engberg.

    Aug 15, 2012

  • Research Brief

    Research Brief

    Improving School Leadership Through the Pittsburgh Principal Incentive Program

    A RAND Corporation report examines the Pittsburgh Principal Incentive Program's implementation, how principals have responded to the reforms, and what outcomes followed program implementation.

    Jul 2, 2012

  • Report


    What Are the Effects of Performance-Based Compensation for Principals?

    This study examines the effects of financial incentives for Pittsburgh principals on teacher supervision, student achievement, and gaps between high- and low-achieving students. Findings suggest that the incentives have had positive impacts, however, performance-based compensation requires more scrutiny.

    Jun 25, 2012

  • Research Brief

    Research Brief

    No Evidence That Incentive Pay for Teacher Teams Improves Student Outcomes: Results from a Randomized Trial

    Analysis of an incentive program that paid teachers bonuses based on their students' growth in achievement in mathematics, English language arts, science, and social studies showed no effect on student test scores in any of the subject areas.

    May 30, 2012