Vaccination

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Vaccination has eradicated many of the world's most deadly infectious diseases and is used to prevent childhood diseases, highly contagious diseases such as COVID-19 and influenza, and viruses causing dangerous, chronic conditions such as hepatitis. Much of RAND's research on vaccination focuses on identifying barriers to immunization, determining strategies to promote vaccination, and studying the impact of vaccines on health in the United States and globally.

  • A girl getting a COVID-19 vaccination, photo by valentinrussanov/Getty Images

    Report

    How to Boost COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance in the United States

    Sep 9, 2021

    Vaccine hesitancy is a major challenge to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Reaching herd immunity will require boosting confidence in the safety and effectiveness of the vaccines, combatting complacency about the pandemic, and increasing the convenience of getting vaccinated.

  • Nurse Pamela Omboko prepares a Malaria vaccine for infants at a clinic in Gem, Siaya County, Kenya, October 7, 2021, photo by James Keyi/Reuters

    Commentary

    Malaria Vaccine May Not Eliminate Need to Combat Counterfeit Medicines

    Nov 8, 2021

    The newly announced malaria vaccine could be a critical tool to combat the tremendous socioeconomic burden malaria causes. But global achievements in reducing malaria cases and deaths in the past decades may be in danger of significant reversal if the problem of counterfeiting continues.

Explore Vaccination

  • U.S. Marines check a barrel for contamination during a training exercise at Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, San Diego, California, April 30, 2013, photo by Sgt. Keonaona C. Paulo/U.S. Marine Corps

    Commentary

    Could the Bioweapons Treaty Be Another Tool for Addressing Pandemics?

    What might governments do to reduce the risk of future large-scale biological attacks or naturally occurring pandemics? Perhaps now is the right time to revisit the 46-year-old Biological Weapons Convention treaty and make it a better tool against future biological threats.

    Mar 12, 2021

  • People wait in line in a Disneyland parking lot to receive the COVID-19 vaccine at a mass vaccination site in Anaheim, California, January 13, 2021, photo by Mario Anzuoni/Reuters

    Commentary

    How Game Theory Could Solve the COVID-19 Vaccine Rollout Puzzle

    The health systems behind the vaccine rollout are attempting to create order from chaos, sometimes with mixed results. Rather than relying on on-the-fly decisionmaking, state authorities should consider turning to game theory as a tool that could be the key to more efficient, faster vaccine distribution.

    Mar 11, 2021

  • Journal Article

    Journal Article

    Modeling Agent Behaviors for Policy Analysis Via Reinforcement Learning

    This paper examines the value of reinforcement learning models as adaptive, high-performing, and behaviorally-valid models of agent decision-making in Agent-based Models.

    Mar 9, 2021

  • Blog

    Vaccine Hesitancy, Sexual Misconduct in the U.S. Military, the Iran Nuclear Deal: RAND Weekly Recap

    This weekly recap focuses on Black Americans’ vaccine hesitancy, sexual harassment and sexual assault in the U.S. military, rejoining the Iran nuclear deal, and more.

    Mar 5, 2021

  • News Release

    News Release

    Black Americans Report High Levels of Vaccine Hesitancy, Including Among Health Care Workers

    Black Americans have a high level of vaccine hesitancy and mistrust of COVID-19 vaccines, including among Black health care workers. Those who expressed vaccine hesitancy also showed high levels of overall mistrust in the vaccine, concerns about potential harm and side effects, and lack of confidence in vaccine effectiveness and safety.

    Mar 1, 2021

  • A senuir Hispanic man in a wheelchair with his adult daughter, photo by kali9/Getty Images

    Commentary

    Family Caregivers Are the Health Care Workers That Vaccination Plans Overlook

    About 53 million family members and friends provide care to loved ones in the United States, representing a critical element of the long-term care system. The pandemic has made family caregivers front-line workers. They can't be left out of important discussions around vaccination priorities and how to minimize the virus's risk to those with compromised health.

    Mar 1, 2021

  • People are seen at a 24-hour COVID-19 vaccination center at the Brooklyn Army Terminal in Brooklyn, New York, January 11, 2021, photo by Brendan McDermid/Reuters

    Report

    Vaccine Hesitancy Is High Among Black Americans, Including Health Care Workers

    Lower vaccination rates among Black Americans would further widen COVID-19 inequities in diagnosis, hospitalization, and mortality. But concerns about vaccine safety, mistrust of the government's transparency around COVID-19, and beliefs about racism in health care are contributing to mistrust of the vaccine.

    Mar 1, 2021

  • Blog

    Reducing Hospital Prices, Vaccinating the Most Active, Myanmar: RAND Weekly Recap

    This weekly recap focuses on regulating hospital prices to cut spending, a COVID-19 vaccine strategy that prioritizes “active” people, what the Capitol attack means for security clearances, and more.

    Feb 19, 2021

  • Nurse practitioner Nicole Monk, 44, receives a coronavirus vaccination at the LA Mission homeless shelter on Skid Row, in Los Angeles, California, February 10, 2021, photo by Lucy Nicholson/Reuters

    Report

    Protecting the Most Vulnerable by Vaccinating the Most Active

    The debate between protecting vulnerable people and stopping the spread of the coronavirus might be a false choice. Evidence suggests that vaccinating people with many contacts may provide more protection for the vulnerable than vaccinating vulnerable people directly.

    Feb 15, 2021

  • Blog

    Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, COVID-19 Variants, Myanmar: RAND Weekly Recap

    This weekly recap focuses on alternatives in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, sexual assault and sexual harassment in the military, how couples can sleep better during the pandemic, and more.

    Feb 12, 2021

  • A worker stands next to the shipment of 600,000 doses COVID-19 vaccines donated by China at the Phnom Penh International Airport, in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, February 7, 2021, photo by Cindy Liu/Reuters

    Commentary

    Equal, Rapid Access to Vaccines Is More Important Than Ever as New COVID-19 Variants Emerge

    Vaccine nationalism could prolong the pandemic and lead to preventable deaths. If some countries don't receive timely access to vaccines, then the virus will continue to spread in some populations, mutate further, and potentially render existing vaccines less effective.

    Feb 9, 2021

  • Detail of covid-19 vaccine vials and and a syringe. Photo by vladans / Getty Images

    Multimedia

    COVID-19 Vaccine Cross-Border Liability and Compensation

    A RAND virtual event focused on (1) facilitating global distribution of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines and (2) preventing liability and compensation concerns from affecting the vaccine supply chain and public uptake of the vaccine.

    Feb 2, 2021

  • Blog

    Keeping COVID-19 Vaccines Moving, the Capitol Attack, Media Literacy: RAND Weekly Recap

    This weekly recap focuses on keeping COVID-19 vaccines moving to save more lives; why we need a national commission to investigate the U.S. Capitol attack; media literacy as a tool to counter “Truth Decay,” and more.

    Jan 22, 2021

  • Nurses prepare to vaccinate people at a drive-through COVID-19 vaccination site in Detroit, Michigan, January 15, 2021, photo by Emily Elconin/Reuters

    Commentary

    Keep the Vaccine Moving to Save the Most Lives

    The United States is waiting to be vaccinated against COVID-19 and millions of doses wait for arms. Policymakers at the national, state, and local levels have been stockpiling the shots for many reasons. While supply ramps up, policymakers could push to deliver vaccine to people instead of freezers.

    Jan 19, 2021

  • COVID-19 vaccine in a medical syringes at IU Health Bloomington, in Bloomington, Indiana, December 18, 2020, photo by Jeremy Hogan / SOPA Images/Sipa USA/Reuters

    Commentary

    Getting COVID-19 Vaccines to Pennsylvania Residents

    Pennsylvania state and county health departments have a number of options that could speed the delivery of COVID-19 vaccines to make sure Pennsylvania residents at high risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes are vaccinated as soon as possible.

    Jan 19, 2021

  • Blog

    Political Violence, COVID-19 Vaccine Questions, Mental Health Care: RAND Weekly Recap

    This weekly recap focuses on why we need to brace for more political violence after the Capitol attack, COVID-19 vaccine questions and answers, how to reform the U.S. mental health system, and more.

    Jan 15, 2021

  • COVID-19 vaccination stations inside Hillcrest High School, a designated New York City priority vaccination center for people in group 1B, in Queens, NY, January 11, 2021, photo by Anthony Behar/Reuters

    Commentary

    COVID-19 Options for 2021

    The disorganized public health response to the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States helped ensure that the nation led the world in infections nearly from the beginning of the pandemic. With vaccines now becoming available, are we over the problem? Not necessarily.

    Jan 12, 2021

  • The Moderna COVID-19 vaccine is administered during a drive through event at InclusivCare in Avondale, Louisiana, January 9, 2021 photo by Kathleen Flynn/Reuters

    Blog

    As the Vaccines Arrive, So Do the Questions

    As the first COVID-19 vaccines are being administered across the United States, countless questions have arisen about what comes next. Is one vaccine better than another? Can the United States both speed up inoculation and overcome some people's hesitance to get the shot? RAND experts offer insights into the historic vaccine rollout.

    Jan 11, 2021

  • Overcoming Hurdles to Herd Immunity (Teaser)

    Multimedia

    Overcoming Hurdles to Herd Immunity

    RAND senior physician policy researcher Mahshid Abir describes several hurdles to achieving herd immunity to COVID-19, including the politicization of the vaccine and the spread of misinformation.

    Jan 8, 2021

  • Periodical

    Periodical

    RAND Review: January-February 2021

    The cover story on the ’Internet of Bodies’ highlights the perils of devices that track personal health data and provide medical treatment. Other columns explore vaccine hesitancy, the high price of insulin in the U.S., and social justice in America.

    Jan 6, 2021

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