In March 2009, the Dallas Police Department (DPD) began a unique partnership with two local universities, the University of North Texas and the University of Texas at Dallas: The Caruth Police Institute (CPI) provides officer training and serves as the DPD's research and problem-solving arm. This report examines the extent to which CPI is meeting its goals, obstacles to implementation, and how CPI has responded to these challenges.
Publications on Law Enforcement
Methods for Assessing Racially Biased Policing July 29, 2011
Discusses an array of methods that have been used to assess, using data on stops made by police officers, the existence or extent of racially biased policing.
Toward a Comparison of DNA Profiling and Databases in the United States and England December 20, 2010
RAND researchers explored the U.S. and English forensic DNA analysis systems to find out whether England has capitalized more fully on their crime-fighting potential than the U.S. system, processing samples more quickly and providing more database hits for law enforcement.
Improving Police Recruitment and Retention October 9, 2010
Local police agencies face recruitment and retention challenges. Existing research can help local officials identify what has been learned elsewhere and is applicable to their own situations.
Today's Police and Sheriff Recruits: Insights from the Newest Members of America's Law Enforcement Community October 6, 2010
For much of the last decade, police and sheriff's departments faced considerable challenges in attracting and retaining recruits. This volume summarizes a 2008–2009 survey fielded to recent police officer and sheriff's deputy recruits nationwide. The authors focus on how understanding modern recruits can help departments refine their recruitment practices and develop a workforce well suited to community-oriented policing.
Long-Term Effects of Law Enforcement's Post-9/11 Focus on Counterterrorism and Homeland Security October 1, 2010
In the aftermath of 9/11, many law enforcement agencies (LEAs) shifted more resources toward developing counterterrorism (CT) and homeland security (HS) capabilities. This volume examines the effects the focus on CT and HS has had on law enforcement since 9/11, including organizational changes, funding mechanisms, how the shift has affected traditional crime-prevention efforts, and an assessment of benefits, costs, and future challenges.
Recruiting and Retaining America's Finest: Evidence-Based Lessons for Police Workforce Planning September 21, 2010
Shares results of a survey, sent to every U.S. police agency with at least 300 sworn officers, on recruitment and retention practices. Finds that police compensation, city size, and crime rates affected recruiting. Advertising and incentives had little effect on the number of recruits. Cohort sizes highlighted management challenges. To facilitate comparative and longitudinal staffing analyses, ongoing national data collection is recommended.
Almost 12 million out-of-status aliens currently reside in the United States. The federal government does not require state and local agencies to carry out specific immigration enforcement actions; however, comprehensive immigration reform may do so in the near future. This paper describes variations in enforcement approaches and making their pros and cons more explicit.
Hidden in Plain Sight: What Cost-of-Crime Research Can Tell Us About Investing in Police March 5, 2010
Summarizing the existing high-quality academic research on the cost of crime and the effectiveness of police in preventing crime, this paper demonstrates how this research can be used to better understand the returns on investments in police. The cost/benefit method described shows that returns on investments in police personnel are likely to be substantial.
Cincinnati Police Department Traffic Stops: Applying RAND's Framework to Analyze Racial Disparities September 25, 2009
In 2002, the Cincinnati Police Department (CPD) joined with other agencies and organizations to improve police-community relations in the city. This report focuses on the analysis of racial disparities in traffic stops in Cincinnati. The authors find no evidence of racial differences between the stops of black and those of similarly situated nonblack drivers, but some issues can exacerbate the perception of racial bias.
This book helps the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) achieve its recruiting and diversity goals by offering ways to improve productivity and efficiency in the recruiting process. It identifies potential untapped recruiting markets, provides a model of viable candidates to target recruitment and prioritize applicants while still reaching diversity hiring goals, and recommends ways to improve background-investigation processes.
WINNER — Honorable Mention
2009 IACP/Sprint Excellence in Law Enforcement Research Award
Understanding Forfeitures: An Analysis of the Relationship Between Case Details and Forfeiture Among TEOAF High-Forfeiture and Major Cases March 18, 2009
The Treasury Executive Office for Asset Forfeiture (TEOAF) administers the Treasury Forfeiture Fund (TFF), which receives deposits of nontax forfeitures made by current and former Treasury agencies. Participating agencies use TFF funds to disrupt and dismantle criminal enterprises. This report examines the relationship between targeted funding support of major financial investigations and the forfeiture outcomes of such investigations.
The Economic Cost of Methamphetamine Use in the United States, 2005 January 27, 2009
This first national estimate of the economic cost of methamphetamine (meth) use in the United States suggests that costs reached $23.4 billion in 2005. The analysis, with a lower-bound estimate of $16.2 billion and an upper-bound estimate of $48.3 billion, considers the burden of addiction, premature death, drug treatment, lost productivity, crime and criminal justice, health care, production and environmental hazards, and child endangerment.
Police-Community Relations in Cincinnati January 16, 2009
As part of a 2002 collaborative agreement between the Cincinnati Police Department (CPD), the American Civil Liberties Union, and the Fraternal Order of Police, the RAND Corporation annually assesses whether the parties are achieving improving police-community relations in Cincinnati. CPD polices differently than it did in 2001. But without a concerted effort, black Cincinnati residents will likely remain less satisfied than whites with CPD.
Film Piracy, Organized Crime, and Terrorism January 14, 2009
A study of the involvement of organized-crime and terrorist groups in product counterfeiting. Case studies of film piracy illustrate the problem of criminal — and perhaps terrorist — groups using this new high-payoff, low-risk way to fund their activities. Cooperation among law enforcement and governments worldwide is needed to combat intellectual-property theft, which threatens the global information economy, public safety, and national security.
Occupational Safety and Health for Public Safety Employees: Assessing the Evidence and the Implications for Public Policy November 17, 2008
Police officers, firefighters, and other public safety workers face exceptionally high rates of injury and fatality relative to the general workforce. This document provides an analysis of the risk factors associated with different aspects of public safety occupations, to help policymakers in their efforts to improve the health and safety of these employees.
Reinforcing the Thin Blue Line: Improving Recruitment for the San Diego Police Department September 14, 2008
This research brief summarizes an assessment of recruiting in the San Diego Police Department, recommending that the department target a wider range of applicants, make applicant screening more efficient, and strengthen recruiting teams.
The San Diego Police Department (SDPD) has been operating below its authorized size in recent years. To bridge its personnel gap, the department needs to maximize its recruiting while minimizing officer attrition. To accomplish this goal, the department sought assistance from RAND to improve its recruiting efforts and suggest ways to improve the diversity of its recruits. This monograph describes RAND's effort to assist SDPD's recruiting program.
Do NYPD's Pedestrian Stop Data Indicate Racial Bias? February 14, 2008
This research brief summarizes work determining whether (1) racial distribution of New York City Police Department stops suggests racial bias, (2) certain officers disproportionately stop nonwhites, and (3) there are racial differences after stops.
In 2002, the Cincinnati Police Department (CPD), the Fraternal Order of Police, and the ACLU joined together in a collaborative agreement to resolve social conflict, improve community relations, and avoid litigation. This third-year evaluation reports that blacks continue to bear a disproportionate share of the impact of policing services by virtue of the clustering of crime, calls for service, and policing in predominantly black neighborhoods.
Analysis of Racial Disparities in the New York Police Department's Stop, Question, and Frisk Practices November 9, 2007
Raw statistics for encounters between New York City police officers and pedestrians suggest large racial disparities — 89 percent of 2006 stops involved nonwhites. The New York City Police Department asked RAND to help it understand this and identify recommendations for addressing potential problems. RAND researchers analyzed 2006 pedestrian-police encounters, finding small racial differences in rates of frisk, search, use of force, and arrest.
Efforts to Improve Police-Community Relations in Cincinnati February 16, 2007
This research brief summarizes second-year findings. Although there is no evidence of systematic racial bias in Cincinnati Police Department vehicle stops, other police actions have racially disparate impacts that fuel perceptions of racial bias.
Recruitment and Retention: Lessons for the New Orleans Police Department February 12, 2007
This study presents recommendations to improve recruiting and retention in the New Orleans Police Department (NOPD). The recommendations, tailored to the unique circumstances of the NOPD, include using civilian employees for some jobs now performed by officers; developing a proactive recruiting program; providing housing; increasing the frequency of promotion examinations; eliminating the backlog of promotions; restructuring compensation; establishing a first-responders charter school; and rebuilding the police infrastructure.
Police-Community Relations in Cincinnati: Year Two Evaluation Report December 10, 2006
In 2002, the Cincinnati Police Department, the Fraternal Order of Police, and the American Civil Liberties Union initiated a collaboration to resolve social conflict, improve community relations, and avoid litigation in Cincinnati. The collaborative agreement requires the participants to collectively pursue five primary goals. The parties chose the RAND Corporation to evaluate progress toward these goals for five years and to publish its findings in annual reports. This is the second such report.
Reducing Gun Violence: Results from an Intervention in East Los Angeles December 22, 2010
To assess whether an initiative to reduce gun violence that had been successful in Boston could be adapted for use elsewhere, researchers selected an East Los Angeles area for a similar intervention that was to include both law enforcement and social service components. Although the latter component was not widely available when the intervention began, researchers found that the intervention helped reduce violent and gang crime in the targeted districts and that crime also decreased in surrounding communities.