IFLS Photos

Health Facilities: Photos from pilot tests of the survey instrument.

The IFLS collects extensive information from a sample of health facilities in the IFLS enumeration areas. The types of health care providers included: government health centers and subcenters (puskesmas, puskesmas pembantu); the private practices of doctors, midwives, nurses, and paramedics; private clinics; traditional practitioners; and community health posts (posyandu).


The Puskesmas (literally the Office of Community Health, but generally translated as "health center") is the basic source of primary and also of reproductive health care. Health centers are generally located in the subdistrict capital and headed by a doctor, who oversees a midwife, one or more nurses, and various paramedical workers. Each subdistrict (consisting of 20-40 villages or townships) claims at least one health center. The photo to the right is of a laboratory technician at a Puskesmas.


The Posyandu, or the Integrated Health Post, is a monthly activity, oriented towards mothers and children under five, and attended by mothers, children, community volunteers, staff from the health centers, and/or family planning fieldworkers. The services that the Posyandu offers depend on whether health center staff attend. If health workers are present the post may provide some prenatal and postnatal exams, immunization, and injections, in addition to vitamin and nutritional screening, and oral contraceptives.

In the photos below, we see registration and growth monitoring at the Posyandu.

Private Midwife

In Indonesia private practitioners, including paramedics, midwives, and doctors, are an important source of health care and family planning services. Villages with a health center are likely to claim a doctor's practice and midwife's delivery clinic as well, and sometimes health center staff may also open practices in nearby villages.

The photos below were taken during the pretests of the health facility survey for IFLS2. In the first pair, a private midwife is reviewing her equipment inventory and answering questions about her practice with the Community-Facility interviewers. In the second pair of photos, two midwives watch over newborns (and mother).

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