Scientific Approach to Finding Indicators for and Responses to Radicalisation

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SAFIRE (Scientific Approach to Finding Indicators for and Responses to Radicalisation) was an EU project from June 2010 through November 2013 that supported the policy making process with tools designed to identify key dimensions and determinants of radicalisation and to visualise relationships between them.

The scope of SAFIRE primarily involved groups and individuals on the extreme and violent end of the radicalisation spectrum. However, in order to understand them and their motives, the researchers also needed to step back and understand what happened before those individuals turned to a more violent version of their philosophy.

RAND Europe's SAFIRE partners included TNO, UC, UvA, FORUM, Hogeschool Utrecht, FRS, ISCA, CEIS, Bridge129, and SIPI.


The project focused on two innovations in this field of research:

  • Developing a non-linear model of the radicalisation process based on typologies of radical groups, cultural aspects of radicalisation, observable indicators of radicalisation, interventions designed to reverse, halt or prevent the radicalisation process.
  • The collection of qualitative and quantitative empirical data to test hypotheses about radicalisation and principles of effective interventions.

More information on the project is available at