Center Staff

Center Staff, Winter 2018

Center Staff, Winter 2018

Leadership

Cheryl L. Damberg, Ph.D.

Principal Senior Researcher

Cheryl Damberg is the Center's principal investigator and leads the Center's study of the use of incentives to drive health system and provider behavior. A principal senior researcher at the RAND Corporation, Damberg holds the RAND Distinguished Chair in Payment Policy. Her research focuses on value-based payment reforms and how providers are responding to financial incentives and behavioral nudges to improve quality, reduce the use of low value care, and moderate the growth in spending; measuring the cost and quality performance of physician organizations and health systems; improving the design of performance rating and incentive systems; and examining the effects of market consolidation on quality and cost of care.

Selected Publications

  1. Distinguishing high-performing health systems using a composite of publicly reported measures of ambulatory care. Agniel D, Haviland A, Shekelle P, Scherling A, Damberg CL. Ann Intern Med, (online ahead of print, 2020) 32956603 DOI: 10.7326/M20-0718.
  2. Waste in the Medicare program: A national cross-sectional analysis of 2017 low-value service use and spending. Reid RO, Mafi JN, Baseman LH, Fendrick AM, Damberg CL. J Gen Intern Med, (online ahead of print 2020) PMID: 32728953. doi: 10.1007/s11606-020-06061-0.
  3. Are value-based incentives driving behavior change to improve value?. Damberg CL, Silverman M, Burgette L, Vaiana ME, Ridgely MS. Am J Manag Care, 25(2): e26-232. PMID: 30763040.
  4. What role does efficiency play in understanding the relationship between cost and quality in physician organizations? Paddock SM, Damberg CL, Yanagihara D, Adams JL, Burgette L, Escarce JJ. Med Care, 55(12):1039-1045. PMCID: PMC5690805.
  5. Pay-for-performance schemes that use patient and provider categories would reduce payment disparities. Damberg CL, Elliott MN, Ewing BA. Health Aff (Millwood), 34(1):134-42. PMID: 25561654. DOI: 10.1377/hlthaff.2014.0386.

M. Susan Ridgely, J.D.

Senior Health Policy Researcher

M. Susan Ridgely is a senior health policy researcher at the RAND Corporation and co-director of the Center. In addition to administrative activities, she contributes methodological and substantive expertise to all of the Center's projects, with special attention to development and implementation of qualitative research methods. A seasoned principal investigator and project director, she has managed numerous grants and contracts on behalf of government agencies, foundations, and private sector clients. For the past 30 years she has conducted research on innovations in health care finance and delivery, health information technology, patient safety, and medical liability. She specializes in the design and management of large, mixed method, multi-site evaluations. An attorney by training, she has also published legal and policy analyses on health care issues as diverse as health privacy, patient identity establishment, and medical liability.

Selected Publications

  1. The importance of understanding and measuring health system structural, functional, and clinical integration. Ridgely, M.S., Buttorff, C., Wolf, L.J., Duffy, E.L., Tom, A., Damberg, C., Scanlon, D.P., Vaiana, M.E. Health Services Research. 2020;55(Suppl. 3):1049–1061, DOI: 10.1111/1475-6773.13582.
  2. Optimizing health IT to improve health system performance: A work in progress. Rudin, R., Fischer, S., Ridgely, M.S., Shi, Y., Khodyakov, D., Xenakis, L., Shekelle, P., Damberg, C. Healthcare: The Journal of Delivery Science and Innovation, 2020 Dec;8(4):100483. doi: 10.1016/j.hjdsi.2020.100483.
  3. Consolidation by Any Other Name: The Emergence of Clinically Integrated Networks. Ridgely, M. S., Timbie, J.S., Wolf, L.J., Duffy, E.L., Buttorff, C., Tom, A., Vaiana, M.E. RAND No. RR-A370-1. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.
  4. What are the determinants of health system performance: Findings from the literature and a technical expert panel. Ridgely, M.S., Ahluwalia, S., Tom, A., Vaiana, M., Motala, A., Silverman, M., Kim, A., Damberg, C., and Shekelle, P. Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety. 46:87-89.
  5. Understanding U.S. Health Systems: Using Mixed Methods to Unpack Organizational Complexity. Ridgely, M.S., Duffy, E., Wolf, L., Vaiana, M., Scanlon, D., Buttorff, C., Leitzell, B., Ahluwalia, S., Hilton, L., Agniel, D., Haviland, A., and Damberg, C. eGEMs (Generating Evidence & Methods to Improve Patient Outcomes). 2019;7(1):39. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5334/egems.302

José J. Escarce M.D., Ph.D.

Senior Natural Scientist

José J. Escarce is professor of medicine in the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, professor of health policy and management in the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, and senior natural scientist at the RAND Corporation. An internist, health economist, and health services researcher, Escarce co-leads the Center's data core with Rosalie Pacula. He has extensive experience in creating and managing data cores for multiple large-scale research projects. Escarce has published extensively on a variety of topics including physician behavior, medical technology adoption, racial and socioeconomic differences in health care, and the effects of market forces on access, costs, and quality of care. His research interests include physician behavior; medical technology adoption; racial and socioeconomic differences in health care; and the effects of market forces on access, costs, and quality of care.

Selected Publications

  1. Racial and ethnic disparities in care for health system-affiliated physician organizations and non-affiliated physician organizations. Timbie JW, Kranz AM, DeYoreo M, Eshete-Roesler B, Elliott MN, Escarce JJ, Totten ME, Damberg CL. Health Serv Res., 2020 Dec;55 Suppl 3:1107-1117. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.13581. Epub 2020 Oct 23. PMID: 33094846
  2. Health system affiliation of physician organizations and quality of care for Medicare beneficiaries who have high needs. Kranz AM, DeYoreo M, Eshete-Roesler B, Damberg CL, Totten M, Escarce JJ, Timbie JW. Health Serv Res., 2020 Dec;55 Suppl 3:1118-1128. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.13570. Epub 2020 Oct 6. PMID: 3302092
  3. What role does efficiency play in understanding the relationship between cost and quality in physician organizations?. Paddock SM, Damberg CL, Yanagihara D, Adams JL, Burgette L, Escarce JJ. Med Care, 55(12):1039-1045. PMCID: PMC5690805
  4. Constructing a time-invariant measure of the socio-economic status of U.S. census tracts. Miles, JN, Weden, MM, Lavery, D, Escarce, JJ, Cagney, KA, Shih, RA. Journal of Urban Health, 2016, 93(1): 213-32
  5. Implementing computerized provider order entry in acute care hospitals in the United States could generate substantial savings to society. Nuckols, TK, Asch, SM, Patel, V, Keeler, E, Anderson, L, Buntin, MB, Escarce, JJ. Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, 2015, 41(8): 341-50

Dennis Scanlon, Ph.D.

Pennsylvania State University

Dennis P. Scanlon is professor of health policy and administration and Director of the Center for Health Care and Policy Research at Pennsylvania State University. His research interests focus on health systems improvement, including understanding the role of information, incentives, and individual and organizational behavior change for improving health care outcomes. Of special relevance to the Center's mission is his role as principal investigator of The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Aligning Forces for Quality (AF4Q) initiative, a 10-year $300 million initiative to improve the quality of care for chronically ill patients in sixteen regions across the United States. The evaluation tracked program activities and interviewed stakeholders from different perspectives in the 16 communities funded by AF4Q, and administered national surveys to assess the impact of AF4Q interventions and identify lessons learned about the collaborative, multi-stakeholder approach to improving health care at the community level. This work has generated productive and collaborative working relationships with AF4Q grantees, including three of the Center's four community partners—Minnesota Community Measurement, Wisconsin Collaborative for Healthcare Quality, and the Washington Health Alliance.

Selected Publications

  1. Are health systems moving to redesign care delivery? Scanlon, D.P., Harvey, J., Wolf, L., Vanderbrink, J., Shaw, B., Shi, Y., Ridgely, M.S., Damberg, C. Health Services Research. 2020;55(Suppl. 3):1129–1143.
  2. Understanding how health systems facilitate primary care redesign. Harvey, J.B., Vanderbrink, J., Mahmud, Y., Kitt-Lewis, E., Wolf, L.J., Shaw, B., Ridgely, M.S., Damberg, C., Scanlon, D.P. Health Services Research, 2020;55:1144–1154
  3. Trends in the Use of Clinical Decision Support by Health System–Affiliated Ambulatory Clinics in the United States, 2014-2016. Rudin, R. S., Fischer, S. H., Shi, Y., Shekelle, P., Amill-Rosario, A., Ridgely, M. S., Scanlon, D. P., & Damberg, C. L. American Journal of Managed Care (AJMC), December 2019; 7(4), 4-10
  4. Leveraging Health Information Technology for Accountable Care: Thoughts From the Field. Shi, Y., Scanlon, D.P., & A. Amill-Rosario. The American Journal of Accountable Care (AJAC), 2019 Jun; 7(2); 15-17.
  5. Landscape of Health Systems in the United States. Furukawa, M.F., Machta, R.M., Barrett, K.A., Jones, D.J., Shortell, S.M., Scanlon. D.P., Lewis, V.A., O’Malley, A.J., Meara, E.R. and E.C. Rich. Medical Care Research and Review (MCRR), [Epub ahead of print 2019 Jan 23] doi: 1077558718823130.

Mary E. Vaiana, Ph.D.

Senior Communications Analyst

Mary E. Vaiana, a senior communications analyst at the RAND Corporation, leads the Center's communication and dissemination activities and provides support to individual projects to meet their specific needs. She has helped to design and implement dissemination strategies for many major research efforts; recent examples include health care redesign in Qatar, nation building in Palestine, improving mental health for returning veterans, the cost and health consequences of air pollution in California, and the effects of prescription drug cost sharing on overall drug use and health. She has led writing teams on many complex, multi-authored manuscripts. Vaiana is skilled at developing derivative materials such as policy briefs, fact sheets, and special web features that highlight key findings in non-technical language. She also has extensive experience developing presentations for audiences ranging from practitioners and clinical health services researchers to private and public sector decisionmakers, Congress, and the media.

Selected Publications

  1. The Importance of Understanding and Measuring Health System Structural, Functional, and Clinical Integration. Ridgely MS, Buttorff C, Wolf LJ, Duffy EL, Tom AK, Damberg CL, Scanlon DP, Vaiana, ME. Health Serv Res. 2020; 55: 1049– 1061. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6773.13582.
  2. What are the Determinants of Health System Performance? Findings from the Literature and a Technical Expert Panel. Ridgely MS, Ahluwalia SC, Tom A, Vaiana ME, Motala A, Silverman MR, Kim A, Damberg CL, Shekelle PG. Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, Volume 46, Issue 2, February 2020.
  3. Are Value-Based Incentives Driving Behavior Change to Improve Value? Damberg CL, Silverman MR, Burgette LE, Vaiana ME, Ridgely MS. American Journal of Managed Care, Volume 25, Number 2, February 2019.
  4. Understanding U.S. Health Systems: Using Mixed Methods to Unpack Organizational Complexity. Ridgely MS, Duffy EL, Wolf LJ, Vaiana ME, Scanlon DP, Buttorff C, Leitzell B, Ahluwalia SC, Hilton L, Agniel D, Haviland A, Damberg CL. eGEMS. Volume 7, Number 1, 2019.
  5. Evidence-based Best Practices for Outpatient Management of Warfarin. Rose AJ, Vaiana ME. Ann Pharmacother. 2018 Oct;52(10):1042-1046. doi: 10.1177/1060028018782473. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

Research Staff

Denis Agniel, Ph.D.

Statistician

Denis Agniel is a statistician at the RAND Corporation. He works broadly at the intersection of statistical modeling, causal inference, and machine learning. He has interests in measuring and ranking health care quality, particularly for disadvantaged groups. He has worked broadly across projects in the Center, including leading work on measuring the composite quality of physician organizations and health systems. He received his Ph.D. in biostatistics from the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and was a Postdoctoral Fellow in the Department of Biomedical Informatics at Harvard Medical School.

Selected Publications

  1. Distinguishing high-performing health systems using a composite of publicly reported measures of ambulatory care. Agniel D, Haviland A, Shekelle P, Scherling A, Damberg CL. Ann Intern Med, (online ahead of print, 2020) 32956603 DOI: 10.7326/M20-0718.
  2. Provision of social services and healthcare quality in US Community Health Centers (2017). Kranz AM, Mahmud A, Agniel D, Damberg CL, Timbie JW. American Journal of Public Health. 2020,110(4):567-573.
  3. Understanding U.S. Health Systems: Using Mixed Methods to Unpack Organizational Complexity. Ridgely SM, Duffy EL, Wolf LJ, Vaiana ME, Scanlon DP, Buttorff C, Leitzell B, Ahluwalia SC, Hilton L, Agniel D, Haviland A, Damberg CL. eGEMs (Generating Evidence & Methods to Improve Patient Outcomes), Volume 7, Number 1, Page 39. doi: 10.5334/egems.302.

Sangeeta C. Ahluwalia, Ph.D.

Policy and Health Services Researcher

Sangeeta C. Ahluwalia is a policy and health services researcher at the RAND Corporation. She is part of the Center's team working on defining a "high performing” health system and studying health systems. Her past research has centered on examining access to palliative care services early in the trajectory of severe chronic illness, particularly the integration of advance care planning in primary care. Her most recent work includes studies of patient-provider communication about end of life care, the use and role of health information technology in supporting communication in the ICU, pain screening approaches in primary care, and the quality of supportive care among patients with metastatic cancer. Her broader research interests include physician behavior, payment reform and the role of interest groups in health policy development and implementation.

Selected Publications

  1. What Defines a High-Performing Health System: A Systematic Review. Sangeeta C. Ahluwalia, PhD; Cheryl L. Damberg, PhD; Marissa Silverman, MPH; Aneesa Motala, BA; Paul G. Shekelle, MD The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety 2016, 32 R2.
  2. How Are Medical Groups Identified as High Performing: The Effect of Different Approaches to Classification of Performance. Ahluwalia, SC, Damberg CL, Haas AC, Shekelle PG. BMC Health Services Research. Volume 19, Number 500 (2019). doi: 10.1186/s12913-019-4293.
  3. What are the determinants of health system performance: Findings from the literature and a technical expert panel. Ridgely, M.S., Ahluwalia, S., Tom, A., Vaiana, M., Motala, A., Silverman, M., Kim, A., Damberg, C., and Shekelle, P. Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, 46:87-89.
  4. Understanding U.S. Health Systems: Using Mixed Methods to Unpack Organizational Complexity. Ridgely, M.S., Duffy, E., Wolf, L., Vaiana, M., Scanlon, D., Buttorff, C., Leitzell, B., Ahluwalia, S., Hilton, L., Agniel, D., Haviland, A., and Damberg, C. eGEMs (Generating Evidence & Methods to Improve Patient Outcomes). 2019;7(1):39. DOI: http://doi.org/10.5334/egems.302
  5. End-of-Life Care Planning in Accountable Care Organizations: Associations with Organizational Characteristics and Capabilities. Ahluwalia SC, Harris BJ, Lewis VA, Colla CH. Health Services Research. 2017 May 30. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.12720.

Christine Buttorff, Ph.D.

Policy Researcher

Christine Buttorff is a policy researcher at the RAND Corporation. Her primary research interests are in health insurance benefit design and prescription drug policy. She has worked on projects assessing specialty drug coverage, opioids in workers’ compensation, Medicare payment innovations, Medicare benefit redesign and insurance benefit design in the new Marketplaces. She uses qualitative and quantitative methods for the evaluation of policy interventions. Buttorff received her B.S. in political science and B.A. in Italian studies from Santa Clara University and her Ph.D. from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in the Department of Health Policy and Management.

Selected Publications

  1. The importance of understanding and measuring health system structural, functional, and clinical integration. Ridgely MS, Buttorff C, Wolf LJ, et al. Health Serv Res. 2020;55 Suppl 3:1049-1061, DOI: 10.1111/1475-6773.13582.
  2. Consolidation by Any Other Name: The Emergence of Clinically Integrated Networks. Ridgely MS, Timbie JW, Wolf LJ, Duffy EL, Buttorff C, Tom A, Vaiana ME. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2020. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RRA370-1.html.
  3. Understanding U.S. Health Systems: Using Mixed Methods to Unpack Organizational Complexity. Ridgely MS, Duffy EL, Wolf LJ, Vaiana ME, Scanlon DP, Buttorff C, Leitzell B, Ahluwalia SC, Hilton L, Agniel D, Haviland A, Damberg CL. eGEMs (Generating Evidence & Methods to Improve Patient Outcomes), Volume 7, Number 1, Page 39. doi: 10.5334/egems.302.
  4. Evaluation of CMS's Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) Advanced Primary Care Practice (APCP) Demonstration: Final Report. Kahn KL, Timbie JW, Friedberg MW, Mendel P, Hiatt L, Chen EK, Kress AM, Buttorff C, Lavelle T, Weidmer BA, Green HD, Kommareddi M, Malsberger R, Kofner A, Rastegar A, Setodji CM. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation (RR886z2), 2017. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR886z2.html
  5. Examining the Implementation of the Medicaid Primary Care Payment Increase. Timbie JW, Buttorff C, Kotzias V, Case SR, Mahmud A. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation (RR1802), 2017. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR1802.html

Erin Lindsey Duffy, Ph.D.

Adjunct Policy Researcher

Erin L. Duffy is a postdoctoral research fellow at the Leonard D. Schaeffer Center for Health Policy and Economics at USC and an adjunct policy researcher at RAND Corporation. Her current research focuses on consumer financial liability for involuntary out-of-network health care utilization – a phenomenon coined “surprise” medical billing. Duffy studies the prevalence and magnitude of surprise medical bills and evaluates the impacts of state policies addressing surprise medical bills. She has also conducted qualitative and quantitative research on health system performance, healthcare provider payment, and social and racial disparities in health outcomes. Duffy holds a Ph.D. in policy analysis from Pardee RAND Graduate School, an M.P.H. from Boston University with concentrations in biostatistics and epidemiology, and a B.A. in religion from Wellesley College.

  1. Understanding U.S. Health Systems: Using Mixed Methods to Unpack Organizational Complexity. Ridgely SM, Duffy EL, Wolf LJ, Vaiana ME, Scanlon DP, Buttorff C, Leitzell B, Ahluwalia SC, Hilton L, Agniel D, Haviland A, Damberg CL. eGEMs (Generating Evidence & Methods to Improve Patient Outcomes), Volume 7, Number 1, Page 39. doi: 10.5334/egems.302.
  2. The importance of understanding and measuring health system structural, functional, and clinical integration. Ridgely, M.S., Buttorff, C., Wolf, L.J., Duffy, E.L., Tom, A., Damberg, C., Scanlon, D.P., Vaiana, M.E. Health Services Research 2020;55(Suppl. 3):1049–1061, DOI: 10.1111/1475-6773.13582.
  3. Consolidation by Any Other Name: The Emergence of Clinically Integrated Networks. (2020) Ridgely, M. S., Timbie, J.S., Wolf, L.J., Duffy, E.L., Buttorff, C., Tom, A., Vaiana, M.E. RAND No. RR-A370-1. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.
  4. A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of an Integrated Medication Management Program and Implications for Implementation. Fischer S, Armstrong C, Duffy E, Hussey P. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy [In Press].

Shira H. Fischer, M.D., Ph.D.

Associate Physician Researcher

Shira H. Fischer is a medical informaticist and is part of the Center's team exploring the role of health IT in promoting adoption of patient centered outcomes research. Her past research has focused on the role of health information technology in improving laboratory monitoring of high-risk medications in the ambulatory population. She has also worked on design of technology tools for non-hospitalized elderly and pediatric patients and explored the special needs of these populations. Other research has included evaluating the information technology systems at the Veterans Administration, advising Chile on health information technology development, and standardizing medication reconciliation measurement for the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Recent work has focused on telehealth during the pandemic.

Selected Publications

  1. Optimizing health IT to improve health system performance: A work in progress. Rudin RS, Fischer SH, Damberg CL, Shi Y, Shekelle PG, Xenakis L, Khodyakov D, Ridgely MS. Healthc (Amst), 2020 Dec;8(4):100483. doi: 10.1016/j.hjdsi.2020.100483. Epub 2020 Oct 14.
  2. Prevalence and Characteristics of Telehealth Utilization in the United States. Fischer SH, Ray KN, Mehrotra A, Bloom EL, Uscher-Pines L. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(10):e2022302-e2022302.
  3. Trends in the use of computerized physician order entry by health-system affiliated ambulatory clinics in the United States, 2014-2016. Fischer SH, Rudin RS, Shi Y, Shekelle P, Amill-Rosario A, Scanlon D, Damberg CL. BMC Health Serv Res. 2020 Sep 7;20(1):836. doi: 10.1186/s12913-020-05679-4.
  4. Evaluation of Technology-Enabled Collaborative Learning and Capacity Building Models: Materials for a Report to Congress. Fischer SH, Rose AJ, McBain RK, Faherty LJ, Sousa J, Martineau M. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2019. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR2934.html.
  5. Responsible e-Prescribing Needs e-Discontinuation. Fischer S, Rose A. JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association. 2017;317(5):469-70.

Amelia M. Haviland, Ph.D.

Adjunct Researcher

Amelia M. Haviland is a Professor of Statistics and Health Policy at Carnegie Mellon University and adjunct senior statistician at the RAND Corporation. She is the recipient of the Anna Loomis McCandless Chair, a Thomas Lord Distinguished Scholar Award (Institute for Civil Justice, RAND), a MacArthur Fellowship for Younger Scholars (MacArthur Research Network on Social Interactions and Economic Inequality), and a Wray Jackson Smith Scholarship (Section on Government Statistics, American Statistical Association). Dr. Haviland’s research focuses on causal analysis with observational data and analysis of longitudinal and complex survey data applied to policy issues in health and criminology. The Center draws on her statistical and health policy expertise, particularly in measuring health quality; developing methods for making causal inferences with observational data; and working with large data sets, especially those incorporating data from multiple sources including large claims data bases and interview data.

Selected Publications

  1. Distinguishing high-performing health systems using a composite of publicly reported measures of ambulatory care. Agniel D, Haviland A, Shekelle P, Scherling A, Damberg CL. Ann Intern Med, (online ahead of print, 2020). PMID: 32956603 DOI: 10.7326/M20-0718
  2. Understanding U.S. Health Systems: Using Mixed Methods to Unpack Organizational Complexity. Ridgely, M.S., Duffy, E., Wolf, L., Vaiana, M., Scanlon, D., Buttorff, C., Leitzell, B., Ahluwalia, S., Hilton, L., Agniel, D., Haviland, A., and Damberg, C.eGEMs (Generating Evidence & Methods to Improve Patient Outcomes), 2019;7(1):39. DOI: http://doi.org/10.5334/egems.302
  3. How much do additional mailings and telephone calls contribute to response rates in a survey of Medicare beneficiaries? Burkhart Q, Haviland AM, Kallaur P, Edwards CA, Brown J, Elliott MN. Field Methods, 2015, 27(4): 409-425
  4. Comparing the health care experiences of Medicare beneficiaries with and without depressive symptoms in Medicare managed care versus fee-for-service. Martino SC, Elliott MN, Haviland AM, Saliba D, Burkhart Q, Kanouse DE. Health Services Research, 2015, doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.12359
  5. Do experiences with Medicare managed care vary according to the proportion of same-race/ethnicity/language individuals enrolled in one's contract? Price RA, Haviland AM, Hambarsoomian K, Dembosky, JW, Gaillot, S, Weech-Maldonado, R, Willisams, MV, Elliott, MN. Health Services Research, 2015, 50(5): 1649-87

Peter S. Hussey, Ph.D.

Senior Policy Researcher

Peter S. Hussey is Vice President and Director of RAND Health Care. Of special value to the Center is his experience in quantitative analysis of large datasets including health insurance claims, qualitative research, and measurement of quality and efficiency. He has been extensively involved in evaluating new payment and delivery models, specifically bundled payment arrangements. Some of his work has focused on approaches for increasing the use of evidence-based care in provider organizations.

Selected Publications

  1. The Medicare Access And CHIP Reauthorization Act: Effects on Medicare payment policy and spending. Hussey PS, Liu JL, White C. Health Affairs 2017; 36(4): 697-705.
  2. Association between patient-centered medical home capabilities and outcomes for Medicare beneficiaries seeking care from Federally Qualified Health Centers. Timbie JW, Hussey PS, Setodji CC, Kress A, Malsberger R, Lavelle TA, Friedberg MW, Wensky SG, Giuriceo KD, Kahn KL. Forthcoming, Journal of General Internal Medicine. September 2017, 32(9): 997-1004
  3. Episode-based approaches to measuring health care quality. Hussey PS, Friedberg MW, Anhang Price R, Lovejoy SL, Damberg CL. Medical Care Research and Review 2017; 74(2): 127-47.
  4. Appropriateness of advanced diagnostic imaging ordering before and after implementation of clinical decision support systems. Hussey PS, Timbie JW, Burgette LF, Wenger NS, Nyweide DJ, Kahn KL. JAMA 2015; 313(21): 2181-82.
  5. Hospital and regional variation in Medicare payment for inpatient care episodes. Hussey PS, Huckfeldt PJ, Hirshman S, Mehrotra A. JAMA Internal Medicine, 2015; 175(6): 1056-7.

Dmitry Khodyakov, Ph.D.

Senior Behavioral and Social Scientist

Dmitry Khodyakov is a senior behavioral and social scientist at the RAND Corporation, a co-director of RAND’s Center for Qualitative and Mixed Methods, and a Professor at the Pardee RAND Graduate School. As a methodologist, he is an expert on qualitative and mixed-methods research, case-study approaches, and Delphi method. Khodyakov's current research focuses on expert elicitation and stakeholder engagement, intervention and program evaluation, community-academic partnership development and maintenance, patient engagement, CBPR, and research ethics. He is also a leader of RAND's ExpertLens, an innovative online Delphi-based system and methodology for stakeholder engagement and expert elicitation. Khodyakov is leading the qualitative methods group in the data core and providing guidance on systematic analysis of qualitative data to all of the Center's studies.

Selected Publications

  1. Nature and Predictors of Response Changes in Modified-Delphi Panels. Khodyakov, D and Chen, C. Value in Health, 2020, 23(12):1630-1638.
  2. Using an Online Modified-Delphi Approach to Engage Patients and Caregivers in Determining the Patient-Centeredness of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Care Considerations. Dmitry Khodyakov, Sean Grant, Brian Denger, Kathi Kinnett, Ann Martin, Marika Booth, Courtney Armstrong, Emily Dao, Christine Chen, Ian Coulter, Holly Peay, Glen Hazlewood, and Natalie Street. Medical Decision Making, 39(8):1019-31.
  3. From subject to participant: ethics and the evolving role of community in health research. Bromley, E, Mikesell, L, Jones, F, and Khodyakov, D. American Journal of Public Health, 2015, 105(5): 900-908
  4. A qualitative analysis of the impact of healthcare personnel influenza vaccination requirements in California. Khodyakov, D, Uscher-Pines, L, Lorick, SA, Lindley, MC, Shier, V, Harris, K. Vaccine, 2014, 32(25): 3082–3087
  5. An implementation evaluation of the community engagement and planning intervention in the CPIC Depression Care Improvement Trial. Khodyakov, D, Zulfacar Sharif, M, Dixon, EL, Mendel, P, Chung, B, Linkski, B, Bush Jones, J. Community Mental Health Journal, 2014, 50(3): 312-324

Ashley M. Kranz, Ph.D.

Associate Policy Researcher

Ashley M. Kranz is a policy researcher at the RAND Corporation. She conducts health services research focused on improving access to care, quality of care, and health outcomes of vulnerable populations. Her research has focused on improving access to dental care for children, identifying strategies to address the social needs of individuals dually-enrolled in Medicare and Medicaid, and evaluating policies to reduce neonatal abstinence syndrome. Kranz works on the Center’s safety net team and has studied approaches used in high-performing safety net clinics to promote integration across primary care, specialty care, and community-based organizations.

Selected Publications

  1. Health system affiliation of physician organizations and quality of care for Medicare beneficiaries who have high needs. Kranz AM, DeYoreo M, Eshete-Roesler B, Damberg CL Totten M, Escarce JJ, Timbie JW. Health Services Research. 2020, 55(S3):1118-28.
  2. Racial and ethnic disparities in care for health system-affiliated physician organizations and non-affiliated physician organizations. Timbie JW, Kranz AM, DeYoreo M, Eshete-Roesler B, Elliott MN, Escarce JJ, Totten M, Damberg CL. Health Services Research. 2020;55(S3):1107-17
  3. Association of primary and specialty care integration on physician communication and cancer screening in safety net clinics. Kranz AM, Ryan J, Mahmud A, Setodji CM, Damberg CL, Timbie JW. Preventing Chronic Disease. 2020, 17:200025.
  4. Provision of social services and healthcare quality in US Community Health Centers (2017). Kranz AM, Mahmud A, Agniel D, Damberg CL, Timbie JW. American Journal of Public Health. 2020,110(4):567-573.
  5. Using health IT to coordinate care and improve quality in safety net clinics. Kranz AM, Dalton S, Damberg C, Timbe JW. The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety. 2018;44(12):731-740.

Russell S. Phillips, M.D.

Harvard Medical School

Russell S. Phillips is Director of the Center for Primary Care and the William Applebaum Professor of Medicine and Professor of Global Health and Social Medicine at Harvard Medical School. He is a general internist at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, where he provides primary care in Healthcare Associates, a large teaching practice. He has been a leader in innovation in practice and payment in primary care, implementing new care models for patients with chronic illness and, using micro-simulation, testing the impact of global payment on value. He has served on a Massachusetts Health Quality Partners Advisory Group on the future of primary care. In Massachusetts he is advocating for access to primary care, global payment for primary care, and financial support for small, independent practices threatened by the financial strain imposed by COVID-19. He is a leader in oral health integration into primary care and served on a Patient Centered Collaborative Advisory Committee on Oral Health Integration and is co-principal investigator on a related HRSA-funded Academic Unit. Phillips has expertise in the evaluation of innovations in care, systems improvement, patient safety, and quality of care and is a member of the Center's care integration study team.

Selected Publications

  1. Care integration within and outside health system boundaries. Singer, SJ, Sinaiko, AD, Tietschert, MV, et al. Health Services Research. 2020;55 Suppl 3(Suppl 3):1033-1048. doi:10.1111/1475-6773.13578
  2. Primary Care Practice Finances In The United States Amid The COVID-19 Pandemic. Basu S, Phillips RS, Phillips R, Peterson LE, Landon BE. Health Aff (Millwood). 2020;39(9):1605-1614. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2020.00794
  3. A Comprehensive Theory of Integration. Singer SJ, Kerrissey M, Friedberg M, Phillips R. Med Care Res Rev. 2020;77(2):196-207. doi:10.1177/1077558718767000
  4. Association of Primary Care Physician Supply With Population Mortality in the United States, 2005-2015. Basu S, Berkowitz SA, Phillips RL, Bitton A, Landon BE, Phillips RS. JAMA Intern Med. 2019;179(4):506-514. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.7624
  5. The Coming Primary Care Revolution. Ellner AL, Phillips RS. J Gen Intern Med. 2017;32(4):380-386. doi:10.1007/s11606-016-3944-3

Rachel O. Reid, M.D.

Physician Policy Researcher and Schaeffer Fellow

Rachel O. Reid is a physician policy researcher and Schaeffer Fellow at the RAND Corporation. Also a practicing general internist, her research focuses on measuring cost, quality, and value in health care. She has particular interest in the primary care delivery system, public reporting efforts, and delivery and payment system reform. Prior to joining RAND, Reid worked in the Research and Rapid Cycle Evaluation Group at the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services' Innovation Center. Her clinical work has included ambulatory primary care and hospital-based internal medicine. She is an associate physician at Brigham and Women's Hospital and an instructor in medicine at Harvard Medical School. Reid received her A.B. in biochemical sciences from Harvard University and her M.D. and M.S. in clinical research from the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.

Selected Publications

  1. Waste in the Medicare program: A national cross-sectional analysis of 2017 low-value service use and spending. Reid RO, Mafi JN, Baseman LH, Fendrick AM, Damberg CL. J Gen Intern Med, (online ahead of print 2020) PMID: 32728953. doi: 10.1007/s11606-020-06061-0
  2. Primary Care Spending in the Fee-for-Service Medicare Population. Reid, R, Damberg, C, Friedberg, M. JAMA Intern Med, 2019;179(7):977-980. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.8747
  3. Low-Value Health Care Services in a Commercially Insured Population. Rachel O. Reid, Brendan Rabideau, Neeraj Sood. JAMA Internal Medicine, 176(10):1567-1571, 2016
  4. Retail Clinic Visits For Low-Acuity Conditions Increase Utilization And Spending. J. Scott Ashwood, Martin S. Gaynor, Claude M. Setodji, Rachel O. Reid, Ellerie S. Weber, Ateev Mehrotra. Health Affairs, 35(3): 449-55, 2016
  5. The Roles of Cost and Quality Information in Medicare Advantage Plan Enrollment Decisions: an Observational Study. Rachel O. Reid, Partha Deb, Benjamin L. Howell, Patrick H. Conway, William H. Shrank. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 31(2): 234-241, 2016

Robert S. Rudin, Ph.D.

Senior Information Scientist

Robert S. Rudin is a senior information scientist at the RAND Corporation and a member of the Center's health information technology study team. Rudin's research focuses on how health information technology can improve care, reduce costs, and engage patients between visits to their healthcare provider. In recent work, he has investigated the role of health IT in improving health system performance, how patients can improve health record matching to facilitate interoperability, and how to integrate mobile health apps into clinical workflows for between visit symptom monitoring.

Selected Publications

  1. Level of agreement on health information technology adoption and use in survey data: a mixed-methods analysis of ambulatory clinics in 1 US state. Rudin RS, Shi Y, Fischer SH, Shekelle P, Amill-Rosario A, Shaw B, Ridgely MS, Damberg CL. JAMIA Open. 2019 Mar 7;2(2):231-237. doi: 10.1093/jamiaopen/ooz004. eCollection 2019 Jul.
  2. Getting Value From Electronic Health Records: Research Needed to Improve Practice. Rudin RS, Friedberg MW, Shekelle P, Shah N, Bates DW. Ann Intern Med, 2020 Jun 2;172(11 Suppl):S130-S136. doi: 10.7326/M19-0878.PMID: 32479182.
  3. Health information technology for ambulatory care in health systems. Shi Y, Amill-Rosario A, Rudin RS, Fischer SH, Shekelle P, Scanlon D, Damberg CL. American Journal of Managed Care, 2020 Jan;26(1):32-38. doi: 10.37765/ajmc.2020.42143. PMID: 31951357.
  4. Optimizing health IT to improve health system performance: A work in progress. Rudin RS, Fischer SH, Damberg CL, Shi Y, Shekelle PG, Xenakis L, Khodyakov D, Ridgely MS. Healthc (Amst). 2020 Dec;8(4):100483. doi: 10.1016/j.hjdsi.2020.100483. Epub 2020 Oct 14.
  5. Trends in the use of computerized physician order entry by health-system affiliated ambulatory clinics in the United States, 2014-2016. Fischer SH, Rudin RS, Shi Y, Shekelle P, Amill-Rosario A, Scanlon D, Damberg CL. BMC Health Serv Res. 2020 Sep 7;20(1):836. doi: 10.1186/s12913-020-05679-4.

Paul G. Shekelle, M.D., Ph.D.

Director, Southern California Evidence-based Practice Center

Paul G. Shekelle is a consultant in health sciences at the RAND Corporation and Director of the Southern California Evidence-based Practice Center. He is also professor of medicine at the UCLA School of Medicine and a staff physician at the VA Medical Center in West Los Angeles. For the Center, Shekelle is leading the team that is defining "high performance health systems," is co-leading the work group developing the Center's taxonomy, and is leading the Center's study of health information technology. His broad research interests include quality assessment, measurement, and improvement; clinical practice guidelines and performance measures; and the role of context and implementation in complex interventions.

Selected Publications

  1. Using the Electronic Health Record to Understand and Minimize Overuse. Rumball Smith, J, Shekelle, PG, Bates, D. JAMA, January 2017.
  2. What Defines a High-Performing Health System: A Systematic Review. Ahluwalia, SW, Damberg, CL, Silverman, M, Motala, A, Shekelle, PG. The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety 2016, 32 R2.
  3. Getting Value From Electronic Health Records: Research Needed to Improve Practice. Rudin RS, Friedberg MW, Shekelle P, Shah N, Bates DW. Ann Intern Med. 2020 Jun 2;172(11 Suppl):S130-S136. doi: 10.7326/M19-0878.PMID: 32479182
  4. Health information technology for ambulatory care in health systems. Shi Y, Amill-Rosario A, Rudin RS, Fischer SH, Shekelle P, Scanlon D, Damberg CL. Am J Manag Care. 2020 Jan;26(1):32-38. doi: 10.37765/ajmc.2020.42143.PMID: 31951357
  5. How are medical groups identified as high-performing? The effect of different approaches to classification of performance. Ahluwalia SC, Damberg CL, Haas A, Shekelle PG. BMC Health Serv Res. 2019 Jul 18;19(1):500. doi: 10.1186/s12913-019-4293-9.

Yunfeng Shi, Ph.D.

Pennsylvania State University

Yunfeng Shi is an assistant professor of health policy and administration at the Pennsylvania State University. He has been a co-investigator on the evaluation team for the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Aligning Forces for Quality, which includes many of the Center's partners in the current study. Shi's research focuses on patient behavior and engagement, organization and governance of healthcare delivery system, use and impact of health information technology. His recent work includes studies on the effect of public reporting on consumer awareness and use of quality information; the interactive role and patient activation and electronic medical records; and the use of patient centered medical home processes in physician practices. He is working on the health information technology team for the Center.

Selected Publications

  1. Trends in the Use of Clinical Decision Support by Health System–Affiliated Ambulatory Clinics in the United States, 2014-2016. Rudin, R. S., Fischer, S. H., Shi, Y., Shekelle, P., Amill-Rosario, A., Ridgely, M. S., Scanlon, D. P., & Damberg, C. L. American Journal of Managed Care (AJMC), December 2019; 7(4), 4-10.
  2. Level of agreement on health information technology adoption and use in survey data: a mixed-methods analysis of ambulatory clinics in 1 US state. Rudin RS, Shi Y, Fischer SH, Shekelle P, Amill-Rosario A, Shaw B, Ridgely MS, Damberg CL. JAMIA Open, 019 Mar 7;2(2):231-237. doi: 10.1093/jamiaopen/ooz004. eCollection 2019 Jul.
  3. Health information technology for ambulatory care in health systems. Shi Y, Amill-Rosario A, Rudin RS, Fischer SH, Shekelle P, Scanlon D, Damberg CL. Am J Manag Care, 2020 Jan;26(1):32-38. doi: 10.37765/ajmc.2020.42143.PMID: 31951357
  4. Optimizing health IT to improve health system performance: A work in progress. Rudin RS, Fischer SH, Damberg CL, Shi Y, Shekelle PG, Xenakis L, Khodyakov D, Ridgely MS. Healthc (Amst), 2020 Dec;8(4):100483. doi: 10.1016/j.hjdsi.2020.100483. Epub 2020 Oct 14.
  5. Trends in the use of computerized physician order entry by health-system affiliated ambulatory clinics in the United States, 2014-2016.Fischer SH, Rudin RS, Shi Y, Shekelle P, Amill-Rosario A, Scanlon D, Damberg CL. BMC Health Serv Res, 2020 Sep 7;20(1):836. doi: 10.1186/s12913-020-05679-4.

Anna D. Sinaiko, Ph.D.

Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health

Anna D. Sinaiko is a research scientist in the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Harvard School of Public Health and a graduate of the Ph.D. Program in health policy at Harvard University, where she trained in health economics. Sinaiko has extensive expertise in economics and statistics, having worked with data and qualitative and quantitative methods similar to those being used in the Center. Recent work includes projects that have addressed the impact of structural factors like incentives, availability of comparative information, choice architecture, and tiered networks on quality and outcomes in the context of commercial insurance, Medicare, patient-centered medical homes, and health systems under the Affordable Care Act. She is working with the Center's Integration study team.

Selected Publications

  1. Care Integration Within and Outside Health System Boundaries. Singer SJ, Sinaiko S, Tietschert MV, Kerrissey M, Phillips R, Martin V, Joseph GA, Bahadurzada H, Agniel D. Health Serv Res. 2020;55(Suppl. 3):1033–1048
  2. Examining a health care price transparency tool: Who uses it and how they shop for care. Sinaiko, AD and Rosenthal, MB. Health Affairs April 2016, 35(4), https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2015.0746.
  3. Do different patients respond to tiered physician networks differently? Sinaiko, AD. American Journal of Managed Care June 2016; 22(6): 420-425.
  4. Risk corridors and reinsurance in health insurance marketplaces: Insurance for insurers. Layton, TJ, McGuire, TG, Sinaiko, AD. American Journal of Health Economics, 2016, 2(1): 66-95.
  5. The impact of tiered physician networks on patient choices. Sinaiko, AD and Rosenthal, MB. Health Services Research, 2014, 49(4): 1348-1363, doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.12165

Sara Singer, M.B.A., Ph.D.

Stanford University

Sara J. Singer is a professor of medicine at Stanford University School of Medicine and, by courtesy, of organizational behavior at Stanford Graduate School of Business. She directs the Leadership, Management, and Innovation Labs. Singer leads the Center's study on care integration, which explores whether integration at the health system level leads to greater clinical integration in care delivery. Singer uses mixed methods, emphasizing observation, interview, and survey design to understand provider perspectives on key interpersonal and organizational factors that enable delivery system innovation and dissemination of evidence-based practice.

Selected Publications

  1. Integration Within and Outside Health System Boundaries. Singer SJ, Sinaiko S, Tietschert MV, Kerrissey M, Phillips R, Martin V, Joseph GA, Bahadurzada H, Agniel D, Health Services Research, 2020;55(Suppl. 3):1033–1048.
  2. Patient Experiences of Integrated Care in Medicare Accountable Care Organizations and Medicare Advantage versus Traditional Fee-For-Service. Frean M, Covington C, Tietschert M, Bahadurzada H, So J, Singer SJ. Medical Care, 2020 Dec 2. doi: 10.1097/MLR.0000000000001463. Online ahead of print.
  3. A Comprehensive Theory of Integration. Singer SJ, Kerrissey M, Friedberg MW, Phillips R. Medical Care Research and Review, available online ahead of print 2018; DOI: 10.1177/1077558718767000.
  4. Integrated structures may not ensure that care is integrated from the patient’s perspective. Kerrissey M, Clark J, Jiang W, Fryer A, Frean M, Shortell S, Ramsay P, Casalino L, Friedberg M, Singer S. Health Affairs, 2017; 36:5, 885-892.
  5. Defining and Measuring Integrated Patient Care: Promoting the Next Frontier in Health Care Delivery. Singer SJ, Burgers J, Friedberg M, Rosenthal MB, Leape L, and Schneider E. Med Care Res Rev. 2011; 68(1): 112-127.

Justin W. Timbie, Ph.D.

Senior Health Policy Researcher

Justin W. Timbie is a senior health policy researcher at RAND, whose research focuses on evaluations of health care payment and delivery innovations and health policy issues involving the safety net. His prior research has examined implementation of alternative payment models in state Medicaid programs and their impact on the cost and quality of care. He has also studied primary care transformation within federally qualified health centers and the Indian Health Service. Timbie’s current work focuses on measuring socioeconomic disparities in care associated with different physician organization ownership models, and the effects of provider consolidation in rural health care markets on Medicare Advantage enrollees. Timbie leads the Center's safety net study team.

Selected Publications

  1. Racial and ethnic disparities in care for health system-affiliated physician organizations and non-affiliated physician organizations. Timbie JW, Kranz AM, DeYoreo M, Eshete-Roesler B, Elliott MN, Escarce JJ, Totten ME, Damberg CL. Health Serv Res. 2020 Dec;55 Suppl 3:1107-1117. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.13581. Epub 2020 Oct 23. PMID: 33094846
  2. Health system affiliation of physician organizations and quality of care for Medicare beneficiaries who have high needs. Kranz AM, DeYoreo M, Eshete-Roesler B, Damberg CL, Totten M, Escarce JJ, Timbie JW. Health Serv Res. 2020 Dec;55 Suppl 3:1118-1128. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.13570. Epub 2020 Oct 6. PMID: 33020920
  3. Provision of Social Services and Health Care Quality in US Community Health Centers, 2017. Kranz AM, Mahmud A, Agniel D, Damberg C, Timbie JW. Am J Public Health. 2020 Feb 20:e1-e7. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2019.305519. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 32078348
  4. Access, Quality, And Financial Performance Of Rural Hospitals Following Health System Affiliation. O’Hanlon CE, Kranz AM, DeYoreo M, Mahmud A, Damberg CL, Timbie JW. Health Affairs. 2019 Dec; 38(12):1-10.
  5. Federally Qualified Health Center Strategies for Integrating Care with Hospitals and Their Association with Measures of Communication. Timbie JW, Kranz AM, Mahmud A, Setodji CM, Damberg CL. Medicare. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2019 Sep;45(9):620-628. doi: 10.1016/j.jcjq.2019.06.004. Epub 2019 Aug 15.

Christopher Whaley, Ph.D.

Policy Researcher

Christopher Whaley is a policy researcher at the RAND Corporation and professor at the Pardee RAND Graduate School . His research focuses on using large-scale medical claims data to examine 1) How information and financial incentives influence patient’s choice of providers and the associated quality effects of provider choice, 2) How providers respond to changes in consumer incentives, and 3) What explains heterogeneous responses to cost and information programs across diverse patient populations? His work has been published in a range of clinical, health policy, and economics journals. He recently received the 2015 AHRQ Research Conference Director’s Award for a paper published in JAMA Internal Medicine that examines the effect of reference pricing on consumer choice of providers for colonoscopy services.

Selected Publications

  1. Provider Responses to Online Price Transparency. Whaley, Christopher M. Journal of Health Economics. 66 (June): 241–59.
  2. Consumer responses to price transparency alone versus price transparency combined with reference pricing. Whaley, Christopher, Timothy Brown, and James Robinson. American Journal of Health Economics, 5, no. 2 (2019): 227-249.
  3. Medical Practice Consolidation and Physician Shared Patient Network Size, Strength, and Stability. RO'Hanlon, Claire E., Christopher M. Whaley, and Deborah Freund. Medical Care, (2019).
  4. Paying Patients To Switch: Impact Of A Rewards Program On Choice Of Providers, Prices, And Utilization. Whaley, Christopher M., Lan Vu, Neeraj Sood, Michael E. Chernew, Leanne Metcalfe, and Ateev Mehrotra. Health Affairs. 38 (3): 440–47.
  5. Provider Responses to Online Price Transparency. Whaley, Christopher M., and Timothy T. Brown Journal of Health Economics (September).61 (September): 111–33.

Laura Wolf

Pennsylvania State University

Laura Wolf is a community-level social worker and researcher at PSU involved in multiple projects utilizing qualitative methods and community engagement approaches. In her role as a senior research support associate, she develops field approaches and protocols, conducts qualitative data collection, develops approaches for qualitative data processing and preparation, synthesizes and prepares qualitative data for analysis, analyzes data and collaborates on peer-reviewed publications.

Selected Publications

  1. Understanding U.S. Health Systems: Using Mixed Methods to Unpack Organizational Complexity. Ridgely SM, Duffy EL, Wolf LJ, Vaiana ME, Scanlon DP, Buttorff C, Leitzell B, Ahluwalia SC, Hilton L, Agniel D, Haviland A, Damberg CL. eGEMs (Generating Evidence & Methods to Improve Patient Outcomes), Volume 7, Number 1, Page 39. doi: 10.5334/egems.302.
  2. The importance of understanding and measuring health system structural, functional, and clinical integration. Ridgely MS, Buttorff C, Wolf LJ, et al. Health Serv Res. 2020;55 Suppl 3:1049-1061, DOI: 10.1111/1475-6773.13582.
  3. Consolidation by Any Other Name: The Emergence of Clinically Integrated Networks. Ridgely MS, Timbie JW, Wolf LJ, Duffy EL, Buttorff C, Tom A, Vaiana ME. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2020. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RRA370-1.html.
  4. Are health systems moving to redesign care delivery? Scanlon, D.P., Harvey, J., Wolf, L., Vanderbrink, J., Shaw, B., Shi, Y., Ridgely, M.S., Damberg, C. Health Services Research. Volume 55, Issue S3, Special Issue: Comparative Health System Performance, pages 1129–1143 (December 2020). doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.13585
  5. Understanding how health systems facilitate primary care redesign. Harvey, J.B., Vanderbrink, J., Mahmud, Y., Kitt-Lewis, E., Wolf, L.J., Shaw, B., Ridgely, M.S., Damberg, C., Scanlon, D.P. Health Services Research. Volume 55, Issue S3, Special Issue: Comparative Health System Performance, pages 1144–1154 (December 2020). doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.13576

Xiaoxi Zhao

Associate Economist

Xiaoxi Zhao is an associate economist at the RAND Corporation. She is interested in the structure and incentive mechanisms of the health care system. Her research mainly focuses on vertical relationships in the health care market: how vertical consolidation affects health care coordination and delivery, how policies work with insurer-provider price negotiation and affect health care affordability, and the impact of ownership on physician behavior.

Selected Publications

  1. Whaley, Christopher M., Xiaoxi Zhao, Michael Richards, and Cheryl L. Damberg. Higher Medicare spending on imaging and lab services after primary care physician group vertical integration. Health Affairs, Volume 40, Issue 5 (2021): 702-709.
  2. The impact of organizational boundaries on healthcare coordination and utilization. Agha, Leila, Keith Marzilli Ericson, and Xiaoxi Zhao. No. w28179. National Bureau of Economic Research, 2020.
  3. Raising the stakes: physician facility investments and provider agency. Munnich, Elizabeth L., Michael R. Richards, Christopher M. Whaley, and Xiaoxi Zhao. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2021. https://www.rand.org/pubs/working_papers/WRA621-4-v2.html

Partner Staff

  • Susanne (Susie) Dade Washington Health Alliance

    Susanne (Susie) Dade is Deputy Director of the Washington Health Alliance. Dade has worked in health care in Washington State for 34 years. Currently, as Deputy Director, Dade is involved in virtually all aspects of the Alliance's work but has a particular focus on strategic planning, performance measurement and reporting, purchaser engagement in value-based purchasing, and provider performance improvement. Importantly for the Center, she previously served as Project Director for the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Aligning Forces for Quality Program in the state of Washington until project completion in April 2015.

  • Chris Queram, M.A. Wisconsin Collaborative for Healthcare Quality

    Chris Queram is president/CEO of the Wisconsin Collaborative for Healthcare Quality (WCHQ), where he has been chief executive since November 2005. WCHQ is a voluntary consortium of organizations working to improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of health care in Wisconsin through the public reporting of comparative performance information. In addition to his responsibilities with WCHQ, Queram is a member of the board of commissioners of The Joint Commission and a principal of the Hospital Quality Alliance. Prior to assuming his current position, Queram was the CEO of the Employer Health Care Alliance Cooperative in Madison, Wisconsin. Queram holds a Master's degree in health services administration from the University of Wisconsin at Madison.

  • Julie Sonier, M.A. Minnesota Community Measurement

    Julie Sonier became President of MN Community Measurement in May 2017. She holds a Master's degree in public affairs from Princeton University and a Bachelor’s degree in economics from Amherst College. Sonier has 20 years of experience in health care policy and reforms to reduce health care cost, and improve quality and access. Most recently, she directed Minnesota's State Employee Group Insurance Program, which purchases health care on behalf of 127,000 Minnesotans. She served previously as Minnesota's state health economist and worked with states across the nation through the University of Minnesota's State Health Access Data Assistance Center. She has in-depth knowledge of the health care financing and delivery systems, as well as the state and federal policy landscapes and their associated challenges and opportunities.

  • Dolores Yanagihara, M.A. Integrated Healthcare Association

    Dolores Yanagihara is Vice President, Analytics and Performance Information, with the Integrated Healthcare Association. She led the development and transition of the California Pay for Performance (P4P) program to Value Based P4P, which incorporates performance on quality, cost, and resource use into health plan incentive payments to physician organizations. Yanagihara has a deep understanding of the P4P program, including measurement, methodologies, and processes. Her focus is now on the development of new strategic initiatives in performance measurement, reporting, data use, and related areas. She is actively involved in promoting quality and resource use measurement, improvement, and reporting through speaking engagements and membership on national committees. Yanagihara earned a Master's degree in public health from the University of Hawaii and a Bachelor of Science in biology from the University of Notre Dame.