Resource Prevalence of Sexual Assault in the Military: Risk and Protective Factors, Data Sources, and Data Uses
This resource offers a brief overview of sexual assault prevalence in the military and includes details on risk and protective factors, data sources, and guidance on using these data in community problem assessments.
As shown in Figure 1, in 2018, 6.2 percent of women and 0.7 percent of men reported experiences consistent with the Uniform Code of Military Justice’s definition of sexual assault (Breslin et al., 2019).
For service members who had experienced sexual assault in the past year, the remainder of the Department of Defense (DoD) survey asked them to focus on the worst or most serious assault they experienced (Breslin et al., 2019). As shown in Figure 2, servicemen who were sexually assaulted (38 percent) were more likely than servicewomen (21 percent) to describe their worst assault as a hazing or bullying incident that included sexual assault. The vast majority of female victims indicated that the assault was perpetrated by a man or a group of men (92 percent), whereas a slim majority of men were assaulted by a man or a group of men (52 percent). An additional 30 percent were assaulted by a woman or women only. Most victims described at least one of their assailants as a member of the military (89 percent for women, 71 percent for men). Sixty-two percent of women and 57 percent of men reported that the most serious sexual assault they experienced happened at a military installation or on a ship. However, many incidents also occurred at locations off base (47 percent for women, 38 percent for men). Finally, alcohol use by the survivor or perpetrator was involved in 62 percent of incidents involving women and 49 percent of incidents involving men.
As shown in Figure 3, most incidents of sexual assault were not officially reported to DoD (Breslin et al., 2019). Of the service members who had experienced sexual assault in the past year, 17 percent of male victims and 30 percent of female victims had reported the incident to DoD. The most common reasons for not reporting the incident were that “they wanted to forget about it and move on,” they “did not want more people to know,” or they “felt shamed or embarrassed.” Among servicewomen who had reported an event, 38 percent indicated experiencing events consistent with professional reprisal, 51 percent indicated experiencing events consistent with ostracism, and 34 percent indicated experiencing events consistent with maltreatment. The most-recent data available can be found at the DoD Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Office (SAPRO) website.
Sexual Assault Risk and Protective Factors
In this review, we focus only on those risk factors for sexual assault that have been established via multiple high-quality studies. These are summarized in Table 1 below. There are many other risk and protective factors that have been studied by one or two researchers or have been described in one or two studies. By excluding them, we do not intend to communicate that they aren’t important or that they won’t prove useful in future prevention strategies.
Table 1: Risk and Protective Factors for Sexual Assault Victimization and Perpetration
|Best Use for Planning Prevention Efforts|
|Level of the Social Ecological Model||Risk for||Factor||Increases Risk?||Provides Protection?||Identifying Group(s) Likely to Benefit from Prevention Efforts||Identifying the Type of Prevention Activity to Implement|
|Individual||Victimization||Women (relative to men)||yes||no||yes||no|
|Prior sexual assault victimization||yes||no||yes||no|
|Pay grade (higher)||no||yes||yes||no|
|Enlisted (relative to officer)||yes||no||yes||no|
|Perpetration||Men (relative to women)||yes||no||yes||no|
|Prior sexual assault perpetration||yes||no||yes||no|
|Victim of childhood emotional or physical abuse||yes||no||yes||no|
|Believe in ideas that justify rape in certain circumstances and blame victim for the assault||yes||no||no||yes|
|Duty station transition||yes||no||yes||no|
|Victimization||Fewer dating and sexual partners||no||yes||yes||yes|
|Community||Victimization||Member of Air Force (relative to other branches)||no||yes||yes||no|
|Higher proportion of workplace is male||yes||no||yes||yes|
|Peers reject sexual assault–supportive attitudes||no||yes||no||yes|
Table 2 below provides a list of sources that offer data about particular risk and protective factors.
Table 2: Links to Existing Data Sources
|Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Active Duty Members (WGRA) and Workplace Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Component Members (WGRR)||Service Academy Gender Relations Survey (SAGR)||RAND Sexual Assault & Sexual Harassment in the U.S. Military Report and Annex|
|Biennial survey of active component members in even years and reserve component members in odd years||Biennial survey of students at the four service academies and focus groups at three academies||2014 RAND Military Workplace Survey|
The group of people who are at highest risk for sexual assault are those who have already been sexually assaulted in the past (LeardMann et al., 2013; Merrill et al., 1999; Sadler et al., 2003). For example, in one study, Army women who had been sexually assaulted prior to enlistment experienced more sexual violence than Army women who had not been assaulted prior to enlistment (Kessler, 2014). The reason sexual assault victims are more likely to be assaulted again is not well understood. Some researchers think that perpetrators target people with certain characteristics (for example, sexual minorities; Morral and Schell, 2021) such that those people are at risk for being assaulted repeatedly over their lifetimes. There could be factors related to where a person lives or spends time that continue to confer risk over their lifetime (for example, living in a location with a high crime rate, frequently attending large social gatherings). Having been sexually assaulted might also change a person in a way that increases their risk. For example, victims who cope with the trauma by using alcohol could become vulnerable to future victimization during periods of intoxication.
Sexual assault victimization is also associated with demographic factors, such as gender, age, marital status, and sexual orientation. Servicewomen are about five times more likely than servicemen to be sexually assaulted (Jaycox, Schell, Morral, et al., 2015). Younger adults are at higher risk than older adults (Kimerling et al., 2007; LeardMann et al., 2013; Street, Rosellini, et al., 2016; Street, Stafford, et al., 2008), and, regardless of age, people who are single or divorced are at increased risk for sexual assault relative to married people (Kimerling et al., 2007; LeardMann et al., 2013; Street, Rosellini, et al., 2016; but see also Sadler et al., 2003, and Street, Stafford, et al., 2008). This could be due, in part, to the fact that younger and single adults are more likely to date or attend social gatherings, where they have increased exposure to potential perpetrators (Marx, Van Wie, and Gross, 1996). Finally, relative to people who identify as heterosexual, individuals who identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual are at elevated risk for sexual assault (Morral and Schell, 2021; Rothman, Exner, and Baughman, 2011).
With respect to military-specific characteristics, enlisted service members—particularly those at lower ranks—carry a greater risk than officers do (LeardMann et al., 2013; Jaycox, Schell, Morral, et al., 2015; Sadler et al., 2003; Street, Rosellini, et al., 2016). There is also converging evidence that members of the Air Force are at lower risk than members of other branches are (LeardMann et al., 2013; Schell and Morral, 2015). Some military settings also increase risk; basic training and transitioning between duty stations have been identified as periods of increased risk for sexual assault among both men and women (Kessler, 2014; Street, Rosellini, et al., 2016). Finally, a military setting in which a workgroup is disproportionately male confers greater risk than a setting with lower percentages of male service members (Sadler et al., 2003; Harned et al., 2002). Because most perpetrators of sexual assaults against service members are men (Jaycox, Schell, Morral, et al., 2015), this effect could be explained simply by noting that, as the proportion of potential offenders in an environment increases, so too does an individual’s risk of sexual assault. Others have focused on cultural factors, suggesting that workplaces that are disproportionately male might also be marked by hypermasculinity, sexual harassment, and male dominance in the power hierarchy (Turchik and Wilson, 2010).
Finally, alcohol use can increase vulnerability if it occurs in a setting with a nearby potential perpetrator. At high doses, alcohol users can be incapacitated or even unconscious and thus could have few means by which to resist or avoid an assault (McCauley et al., 2009; Mohler-Kuo et al., 2004). At lower doses, alcohol use can reduce attention to risk indicators (Davis et al., 2009; Testa, Livingston, and Collins, 2000), thereby decreasing the likelihood that the user will exit a risky encounter while escape is still possible. Finally, individuals observing someone drinking alcohol attribute more sexual intention to that person than they do to someone who is not drinking alcohol, and this social misperception increases the risk of offending (Corcoran and Thomas, 1991; DeSouza et al., 1992; Garcia and Kushnier, 1987; George, Gournic, and McAfee, 1988). For service members who had been sexually assaulted in the past year, 48 percent of women and 38 percent of men indicated that they had been drinking prior to the assault (Breslin et al., 2019).
As with the risk for victimization, one of the best predictors of whether someone is likely to perpetrate a sexual assault in the future is whether they have already sexually assaulted someone in the past (Gidycz, Warkentin, and Orchowski, 2007; Loh and Gidycz, 2006; Loh et al., 2005; Malamuth et al., 1995; White and Smith, 2004). For example, college men who had sexually assaulted someone in the past were nine times more likely to commit another sexual assault in the next semester of college than were young men without histories of sexual violence (Loh and Gidycz, 2006; White and Smith, 2004). Similar data are available from a military cohort of 2,925 male Navy recruits who were studied during their first two years of service (McWhorter et al., 2009). Overall, 13 percent of recruits self-reported that they had attempted or completed a rape by the end of their first year of service, and, of those who sexually assaulted someone in their first year of service, 71 percent reperpetrated during the second year of service (McWhorter et al., 2009). Comparable data for the remaining service branches have not been published. In addition, an individual who was themselves a victim of emotional or physical abuse as a child is more likely to perpetrate sexual violence as an adult (DeGue and DiLillo, 2004; Fineran and Bolen, 2006; Zakireh, Ronis, and Knight, 2008).
Another risk for perpetration is agreement with ideas that make sexual assault seem justifiable in some circumstances (for example, “If a girl leads you on, she deserves to be taught a lesson”) or that shift responsibility for the assault from the assailant to the victim (for example, “When a woman is raped, she usually did something careless to put herself in that situation”). The most common way in which researchers measure these attitudes is with a questionnaire called the Rape Myth Acceptance scale (Lonsway and Fizgerald, 1995). Many studies have shown that people who agree with these ideas are more likely to perpetrate sexual assault (Tharp et al., 2013; Suarez and Gadalla, 2010).
Among civilian sexual assault victims, about two-thirds indicated that the perpetrator was using alcohol at the time of the assault (Brecklin and Ullman, 2002; Tjaden and Thoennes, 2006). Researchers have shown in laboratory experiments that alcohol intoxication causes young men to become more aggressive, particularly young men who are also aggressive in their daily lives (Bushman and Cooper, 1990; Chermack and Giancola, 1997; Ito, Miller, and Pollock, 1996). For ethical reasons, researchers can’t study the effect of alcohol intoxication on sexual aggression directly, but they have found indirect evidence that alcohol use increases the risk of committing a sexual assault (Farris and Hepner, 2014). Young men who consumed alcohol in a controlled laboratory setting were more likely to believe that women depicted in study materials were sexually interested (even when those women were instructed to behave in a friendly, professional manner), took longer than men who had not consumed alcohol to identify that a sexual encounter in an audio track had turned into a date rape, and were more likely to indicate that they would sexually assault someone in a situation similar to a hypothetical date-rape scenario (Farris et al., 2008; Gross et al., 2001; Davis, 2010; Davis et al., 2012; Norris et al., 2002). Although most of this research has been conducted with college men, this group does share demographic characteristics with junior enlisted personnel. In addition, among victims of military sexual assaults, 52 percent of women and 38 percent of men indicated that the perpetrator had been drinking (Breslin et al., 2019), suggesting that alcohol use might be one important risk factor for predicting sexual assault (Farris and Hepner, 2014).
Finally, men with more dating and sexual partners were more likely to perpetrate a sexual assault than men with fewer dating or sexual partners (Tharp et al., 2013)
Using Data to Inform Community Problem Assessment for Sexual Assault Prevention
Making sense of the data you have and resolving conflicting information across sources can be difficult. Below are six questions to ask as you review your data.
- What are the most relevant risk or protective factors for sexual assault at your location? Risk factors are aspects of personal behavior or lifestyle, relationships, or the larger environment that are associated with an increase in the occurrence of a problem behavior. Examples of sexual assault risk factors include alcohol misuse, dating and intimate partner violence, sexual harassment, and hostile masculinity. Protective factors are characteristics associated with a lower likelihood of problem behaviors or that reduce a risk factor's impact. Examples of sexual assault protective factors include healthy relationships, healthy masculinity, workplace civility, and climates of trust and respect.
- What trends in your data suggest that the problem of sexual assault is changing? What is getting worse? What is getting better? What is staying the same?
- How do the different data compare? What are areas of agreement? What are areas of disagreement?
- Are there other considerations? For example, are there missing data or data problems?
- What do the data, taken as a whole, suggest as priorities to address in your effort to strengthen sexual assault prevention at your site? How do the existing data support this prioritization?
- Data limitations are important to consider. For example, the data might be old or available only for your branch of the military or DoD-wide and not for your site. Any inferences you make should draw on your understanding of your current local context in comparison with the data source.
- Brecklin, Leanne R., and Sarah E. Ullman, "The Roles of Victim and Offender Alcohol Use in Sexual Assaults: Results from the National Violence Against Women Survey," Journal of Studies on Alcohol, Vol. 63, No. 1, 2002, pp. 57–63.
- Breslin, Rachel A., Lisa Davis, Kimberly Hylton, Ariel Hill, William Klauberg, Mark Petusky, and Ashlea Klahr, 2018 Workplace and Gender Relations of Active Duty Members: Overview Report, Alexandria, Va.: Office of People Analytics, U.S. Department of Defense, OPA Report No. 2019-027, May 2019.
- Bushman, Brad J., and Harris M. Cooper, "Effects of Alcohol on Human Aggression: An Integrative Research Review," Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 107, No. 3, 1990, p. 341.
- Chermack, Stephen T., and Peter R. Giancola, "The Relation Between Alcohol and Aggression: An Integrated Biopsychosocial Conceptualization," Clinical Psychology Review, Vol. 17, No. 6, 1997, pp. 621–649.
- Corcoran, Kevin J., and Laura R. Thomas, "The Influence of Observed Alcohol Consumption on Perceptions of Initiation of Sexual Activity in a College Dating Situation," Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 21, No. 6, March 1991, pp. 500–507.
- Davis, Kelly Cue, "The Influence of Alcohol Expectancies and Intoxication on Men's Aggressive Unprotected Sexual Intentions," Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, Vol. 18, No. 5, 2010, p. 418.
- Davis, Kelly Cue, Trevor J. Schraufnagel, Angela J. Jacques-Tiura, Jeanette Norris, William H. George, and Preston A. Kiekel, "Childhood Sexual Abuse and Acute Alcohol Effects on Men's Sexual Aggression Intentions," Psychology of Violence, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2012, p. 179.
- Davis, Kelly Cue, Susan A. Stoner, Jeanette Norris, William H. George, and N. Tatiana Masters, "Women's Awareness of and Discomfort with Sexual Assault Cues," Violence Against Women, Vol. 15, No. 9, September 2009, pp. 1106–1125.
- Davis, Lisa, Amanda Grifka, Kristin Williams, and Margaret Coffey, eds., Military Workplace Climate: 2016 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Active Duty Members Overview Report, Alexandria, Va.: U.S. Department of Defense Office of People Analytics, 2017. As of October 23, 2020: https://www.sapr.mil/public/docs/reports/FY16_Annual/Annex_1_2016_WGRA_Report.pdf
- DeGue, Sarah, and David DiLillo, "Understanding Perpetrators of Nonphysical Sexual Coercion: Characteristics of Those Who Cross the Line," Violence and Victims, Vol. 19, No. 6, 2004, pp. 673–688.
- DeSouza, E. R., T. Pierce, J. C. Zanelli, and C. Hutz, "Perceived Sexual Intent in the U.S. and Brazil as a Function of Nature of Encounter, Subjects' Nationality, and Gender," Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 29, No. 2, May 1992, pp. 251–260.
- Farris, Coreen, and Kimberly A. Hepner, Targeting Alcohol Misuse: A Promising Strategy for Reducing Military Sexual Assaults? Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, RR-538-OSD, 2014. As of October 27, 2020: https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR538.html
- Farris, Coreen, Teresa A. Treat, Richard J. Viken, and Richard M. McFall, "Sexual Coercion and the Misperception of Sexual Intent," Clinical Psychology Review, Vol. 28, No. 1, 2008, pp. 48–66.
- Fineran, Susan, and Rebecca M. Bolen, "Risk Factors for Peer Sexual Harassment in Schools," Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Vol. 21, No. 9, 2006, pp. 1169–1190.
- Garcia, Luis T., and Karen Kushnier, "Sexual Inferences About Female Targets: The Use of Sexual Experience Correlates," Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 23, No. 2, May 1987, pp. 252–256.
- George, William H., Susan J. Gournic, and Mary P. McAfee, "Perceptions of Postdrinking Female Sexuality: Effects of Gender, Beverage Choice, and Drink Payment," Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 18, No. 15, December 1988, pp. 1295–1317.
- Gidycz, Christine A., Jennifer B. Warkentin, and Lindsay M. Orchowski, "Predictors of Perpetration of Verbal, Physical, and Sexual Violence: A Prospective Analysis of College Men," Psychology of Men & Masculinity, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2007, p. 79.
- Gross, Alan M., Ted Bennett, Lawrence Sloan, Brian P. Marx, and John Juergens, "The Impact of Alcohol and Alcohol Expectancies on Male Perception of Female Sexual Arousal in a Date Rape Analog," Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, Vol. 9, No. 4, 2001, p. 380.
- Harned, Melanie S., Alayne J. Ormerod, Patrick A. Palmieri, Linda L. Collinsworth, and Maggie Reed, "Sexual Assault and Other Types of Sexual Harassment by Workplace Personnel: A Comparison of Antecedents and Consequences," Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2002, p. 174.
- Ito, Tiffany A., Norman Miller, and Vicki E. Pollock, "Alcohol and Aggression: A Meta-Analysis on the Moderating Effects of Inhibitory Cues, Triggering Events, and Self-Focused Attention," Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 120, No. 1, 1996, p. 60.
- Jaycox, Lisa H., Terry L. Schell, Andrew R. Morral, Amy Street, Coreen Farris, Dean Kilpatrick, and Terri Tanielian, "Sexual Assault Findings: Active Component," in Andrew R. Morral, Kristie L. Gore, and Terry L. Schell, eds., Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment in the U.S. Military: Volume 2, Estimates for Department of Defense Service Members from the 2014 RAND Military Workplace Study, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, RR-870/2-1-OSD, 2015, pp. 9–30. As of October 26, 2020: https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR870z2-1.html
- Kessler, Ronald, Behavioral-Based Predictors of Workplace Violence in the Army STARRS, Boston, Mass.: Harvard Medical School, 2014.
- Kimerling, Rachel, Kristian Gima, Mark W. Smith, Amy Street, and Susan Frayne, "The Veterans Health Administration and Military Sexual Trauma," American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 97, No. 12, 2007, pp. 2160–2166.
- LeardMann, Cynthia A., Amanda Pietrucha, Kathryn M. Magruder, Besa Smith, Maureen Murdoch, Isabel G. Jacobson, Margaret A. K. Ryan, Gary Gackstetter, Tyler C. Smith, and Millennium Cohort Study Team, "Combat Deployment Is Associated with Sexual Harassment or Sexual Assault in a Large, Female Military Cohort," Women's Health Issues, Vol. 23, No. 4, 2013, pp. e215–e223.
- Loh, Catherine, and Christine A. Gidycz, "A Prospective Analysis of the Relationship Between Childhood Sexual Victimization and Perpetration of Dating Violence and Sexual Assault in Adulthood," Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Vol. 21, No. 6, 2006, pp. 732–749.
- Loh, C., C. A. Gidycz, T. R. Lobo, and R. Luthra, "A Prospective Analysis of Sexual Assault Perpetration: Risk Factors Related to Perpetrator Characteristics," Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Vol. 20, No. 10, 2005, pp. 1325–1348.
- Lonsway, Kimberly A., and Louise F. Fitzgerald, "Attitudinal Antecedents of Rape Myth Acceptance: A Theoretical and Empirical Reexamination," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 68, No. 4, 1995, p. 704.
- Malamuth, Neil M., Daniel Linz, Christopher L. Heavey, Gordon Barnes, and Michele Acker, "Using the Confluence Model of Sexual Aggression to Predict Men's Conflict with Women: A 10-Year Follow-Up Study," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 69, No. 2, 1995, p. 353.
- Marx, Brian P., Victoria Van Wie, and Alan M. Gross, "Date Rape Risk Factors: A Review and Methodological Critique of the Literature," Aggression and Violent Behavior, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1996, pp. 27–45.
- McCauley, Jenna, Kenneth J. Ruggiero, Heidi S. Resnick, Lauren M. Conoscenti, and Dean G. Kilpatrick, "Forcible, Drug-Facilitated, and Incapacitated Rape in Relation to Substance Use Problems: Results from a National Sample of College Women," Addictive Behaviors, Vol. 34, No. 5, May 2009, pp. 458–462.
- McWhorter, Stephanie K., Valerie A. Stander, Lex L. Merrill, Cynthia J. Thomsen, and Joel S. Milner, "Reports of Rape Reperpetration by Newly Enlisted Male Navy Personnel," Violence and Victims, Vol. 24, No. 2, 2009, pp. 204–218.
- Merrill, Lex L., Carol E. Newell, Cynthia J. Thomsen, Steven R. Gold, Joel S. Milner, Mary P. Koss, and Sandra G. Rosswork, "Childhood Abuse and Sexual Revictimization in a Female Navy Recruit Sample," Journal of Traumatic Stress: Official Publication of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1999, pp. 211–225.
- Mohler-Kuo, Meichun, George W. Dowdall, Mary P. Koss, and Henry Wechsler, "Correlates of Rape While Intoxicated in a National Sample of College Women," Journal of Studies on Alcohol, Vol. 65, No. 1, 2004, pp. 37–45.
- Morral, Andrew R., and Terry L. Schell, Sexual Assault of Sexual Minorities in the U.S. Military, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, RR-A1390-1, 2021. As of June 15, 2021: https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RRA1390-1.html
- Morral, Andrew R., Terry L. Schell, Matthew Cefalu, Jessica Hwang, and Andrew Gelman, Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment in the U.S. Military: Annex to Volume 5, Tabular Results from the 2014 RAND Military Workplace Study for Installation- and Command-Level Risk of Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, RR-870/8-OSD, 2018a. As of October 26, 2020: https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR870z8.html
- Morral, Andrew R., Terry L. Schell, Matthew Cefalu, Jessica Hwang, and Andrew Gelman, Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment in the U.S. Military: Volume 5, Estimates for Installation- and Command-Level Risk of Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment from the 2014 RAND Military Workplace Study, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, RR-870/7-OSD, 2018b. As of October 26, 2020: https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR870z7.html
- Norris, Jeanette, Kelly Cue Davis, William H. George, Joel Martell, and Julia R. Heiman, "Alcohol's Direct and Indirect Effects on Men's Self-Reported Sexual Aggression Likelihood," Journal of Studies on Alcohol, Vol. 63, No. 6, 2002, pp. 688–695.
- Peebles, H., A. Grifka, and L. Davis, "Military Workplace Climate," in Lisa Davis, Amanda Grifka, Kristin Williams, and Margaret Coffey, eds., Military Workplace Climate: 2016 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Active Duty Members Overview Report, Alexandria, Va.: U.S. Department of Defense Office of People Analytics, 2017, pp. 231–284. As of October 23, 2020: https://www.sapr.mil/public/docs/reports/FY16_Annual/Annex_1_2016_WGRA_Report.pdf
- Rothman, Emily F., Deinera Exner, and Allyson L. Baughman, "The Prevalence of Sexual Assault Against People Who Identify as Gay, Lesbian, or Bisexual in the United States: A Systematic Review," Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, pp. 55–66.
- Sadler, Anne G., Brenda M. Booth, Brian L. Cook, and Bradley N. Doebbeling, "Factors Associated with Women's Risk of Rape in the Military Environment," American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Vol. 43, No. 3, 2003, pp. 262–273.
- Schell, Terry L., and Andrew R. Morral, "Branch of Service Differences in the Rates of Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment," in Andrew R. Morral, Kristie L. Gore, and Terry L. Schell, eds., Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment in the U.S. Military: Volume 2, Estimates for Department of Defense Service Members from the 2014 RAND Military Workplace Study, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, RR-870/2-1-OSD, 2015, pp. 61–68. As of July 4, 2021: https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR870z2-1.html
- Street, Amy E., Anthony J. Rosellini, Robert J. Ursano, Steven G. Heeringa, Eric D. Hill, John Monahan, James A. Naifeh, Maria V. Petukhova, Ben Y. Reis, and Nancy A. Sampson, "Developing a Risk Model to Target High-Risk Preventive Interventions for Sexual Assault Victimization Among Female U.S. Army Soldiers," Clinical Psychological Science, Vol. 4, No. 6, 2016, pp. 939–956.
- Street, Amy E., Jane Stafford, Clare M. Mahan, and Ann Hendricks, "Sexual Harassment and Assault Experienced by Reservists During Military Service: Prevalence and Health Correlates," Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, Vol. 45, No. 3, 2008, p. 409.
- Suarez, Eliana, and Tahany M. Gadalla, "Stop Blaming the Victim: A Meta-Analysis on Rape Myths," Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Vol. 25, No. 11, 2010, pp. 2010–2035.
- Testa, Maria, Jennifer A. Livingston, and R. Lorraine Collins, "The Role of Women's Alcohol Consumption in Evaluation of Vulnerability to Sexual Aggression," Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2000, p. 185.
- Tharp, Andra Teten, Sarah DeGue, Linda Anne Valle, Kathryn A. Brookmeyer, Greta M. Massetti, and Jennifer L. Matjasko, "A Systematic Qualitative Review of Risk and Protective Factors for Sexual Violence Perpetration," Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2013, pp. 133–167.
- Tjaden, Patricia Godeke, and Nancy Thoennes, Extent, Nature, and Consequences of Rape Victimization: Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice, 2006.
- Turchik, Jessica A., and Susan M. Wilson, "Sexual Assault in the U.S. Military: A Review of the Literature and Recommendations for the Future," Aggression and Violent Behavior, Vol. 15, No. 4, 2010, pp. 267–277.
- White, Jacquelyn W., and Paige Hall Smith, "Sexual Assault Perpetration and Reperpetration: From Adolescence to Young Adulthood," Criminal Justice and Behavior, Vol. 31, No. 2, 2004, pp. 182–202.
- Zakireh, Barry, Scott T. Ronis, and Raymond A. Knight, "Individual Beliefs, Attitudes, and Victimization Histories of Male Juvenile Sexual Offenders," Sexual Abuse, Vol. 20, No. 3, 2008, pp. 323–351.