RAND International

RAND International is dedicated to supporting RAND’s vision to be the world’s most trusted source for policy research and analysis.

RAND has decades of experience bringing independent, rigorous, and interdisciplinary methods to bear on the world’s most pressing issues across the globe, including fragile and conflict-affected regions.

Through its centers and internationally focused research conducted by our research divisions, RAND International helps connect RAND’s capacity and expertise to meet research and analysis needs and provide effective policy solutions worldwide. RAND’s subsidiaries in Europe and Australia extend RAND’s reach in meeting our mission to improve policy and decision making through objective research and analysis.

Learn More About Our Global Research

Explore Our Work by Region

Asia

RAND Centers

  • A cityscape of Shanghai

    The RAND Center for Asia Pacific Policy

    The RAND Center for Asia Pacific Policy improves policy by providing decisionmakers and the public with rigorous, objective, cutting-edge research on critical policy challenges facing Asia and U.S.-Asia relations.

Recent Work

Europe and Russia

RAND Centers

  • St.Basil Cathedral in Moscow

    Center for Russia and Eurasia

    The RAND Center for Russia and Eurasia (CRE) brings together experts from across RAND to shed light on the foreign policies, domestic developments, and economic relationships of the countries that succeeded the Soviet Union.

  • european flags on poles

    RAND Europe Improves Policy and Decision Making in Europe and Around the World

    RAND Europe is a not-for-profit research institute dedicated to helping improve policy and decision making through research and analysis. With offices in the UK and Belgium, its research portfolio complements RAND's and also includes choice modeling, evaluation, workplace wellbeing, and much more.

Recent Work

The Middle East

RAND Centers

  • The RAND Center for Middle East Public Policy

    The RAND Center for Middle East Public Policy (CMEPP) brings together analytic excellence and regional expertise from across the RAND Corporation to address the most critical political, social, and economic challenges facing the Middle East today.

Recent Work

  • U.S. Army soldiers conduct a convoy in support of Combined Joint Task Force Operation Inherent Resolve near northeastern Syria, September 21, 2020, photo by Staff Sgt. Michael West/U.S. Army

    Commentary

    Appreciating U.S. Ground Force Contributions to Operation Inherent Resolve

    Defeating ISIS hinged on a ground fight, requiring the grueling liberation of territory kilometer by kilometer. While Iraqi forces bore the brunt of frontline fighting, U.S. forces were also engaged in on-the-ground combat operations that hastened the defeat of ISIS. Appreciating such contributions will be necessary to distill the right lessons so that we might correctly apply them to future irregular warfare.

  • A People's Liberation Army (PLA) delegation (right) visits a United States military facility

    Report

    Implications of a Global People's Liberation Army: Historical Lessons for Responding to China's Long-Term Global Basing Ambitions

    Overseas military access and basing is a critical component of China's global military ambitions. In this report, the authors examine three case studies among the United States' competitors to help anticipate what Chinese overseas access and basing might look like in the 2030s. They assess the risks posed by Chinese military expansion and recommend U.S. strategies to help shape the environment in which Chinese global ambitions will unfold.

  • A Chinese military parade featuring mounted infantry flying the Chinese flag

    Report

    The People's Liberation Army's Search for Overseas Basing and Access: A Framework to Assess Potential Host Nations

    The authors develop a framework of 17 indicators to assess valuable attributes of potential host nations from Beijing's perspective, focusing not only on the utility of host nations (desirability) but also on China's ability to secure access (feasibility). They recommend strategies for the U.S. government, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the U.S. Army to better understand China's overseas plans and to prioritize risks to U.S. forces.

  • The foundation stone laying ceremony of the support base of China's PLA in Djibouti, August 1, 2017, photo by Xinhua/Alamy

    Report

    What Are China's Global Basing Ambitions?

    China appears likely to seek military access and basing in its immediate vicinity and in the Middle East, but parts of Africa and the Indo-Pacific are also of interest. The United States should carefully prioritize where to resist Chinese access and basing and where to reinforce U.S. relationships.

  • Abstract 3D illustration of business or programming flowchart/block diagram, photo by Olena_T/Getty Images

    Report

    National Security Decisionmaking Processes in Israel

    Throughout its existence, Israel has faced security challenges and struggled with how best to make decisions to address them. What are some avenues toward a decisionmaking apparatus that is better suited to the challenges the country faces today?

  • Local residents look at parts of an unmanned aerial vehicle after a Russian drone strike in Kyiv, Ukraine, October 17, 2022, photo by Vladyslav Musiienko/Reuters

    Commentary

    'Wonder Weapons' Will Not Win Russia's War

    With its army increasingly in shambles, Russia has turned to attacking Ukraine's civilian infrastructure with Iranian-made drones in an effort to destroy Ukrainians' will to fight. These tactics will inflict pain on the Ukrainian population, but if history is any guide, they will not forestall a Russian defeat.

Australia

RAND Centers

  • Waving Australia flag in the air at sunset, photo by baona/Getty Images

    RAND Australia

    With 70 years of worldwide research in defence, national security, health care, education, transport, employment, innovation, energy, and the environment behind it, RAND Australia is ideally positioned to help improve policy and decisionmaking in Australia.

Recent Work

  • Report

    Evaluation of Learning Creates Australia's Learner's Journey Social Lab

    As labour markets change and global economies become increasingly interconnected, students require opportunities to develop skills and competencies that are essential for success and life. Researchers evaluated 'The Learner's Journey', a social lab designed by Learning Creates Australia to explore ways to assess and accredit learning that better reflect the diverse knowledge sets, skills and dispositions of students.

  • Digital map of Australia, photo by da-kuk/Getty Images

    Commentary

    Strategic Advantage, Sovereignty and Australia's Geopolitical Identity

    In Australia, which has experienced few national existential crises, there appears to be little understanding of or consideration given to all the nuanced contours of winning. Australia may need to critically assess its strategic traditions to develop a broader conceptualization of how to secure the safety and well-being of the nation and position itself advantageously.

  • (l-r) Prime Minister of Australia Anthony Albanese, U.S. President Joe Biden, Prime Minister of Japan Fumio Kishida, and Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi pose for photos at the entrance hall of the Prime Minister's Office in Tokyo, Japan, May 24, 2022, photo by Zhang Xiaoyu/Pool via Reuters

    Commentary

    Russia's Invasion of Ukraine May Harden U.S. Indo-Pacific Allies

    The effects of Russia's war against Ukraine stretch worldwide as countries watch Ukraine's unfolding tragedy to glean possible lessons for their own security. Understanding how Australia and Japan are perceiving the conflict could be critical for allied strategy in the Indo-Pacific region.

  • Flight test of a conventionally configured ground-launched cruise missile at San Nicolas Island, California, August 18, 2019, photo by Scott Howe/U.S. Department of Defense

    Report

    Challenges of Deploying Ground-Based Intermediate-Range Missiles on Allied Lands

    The United States has been hoping to develop and deploy ground-based intermediate-range missiles to the Indo-Pacific. But what is the likelihood of its treaty allies in the region—Australia, Japan, the Philippines, South Korea, and Thailand—hosting these systems? Are there alternatives to permanent basing?

  • An artist rendering of the future Columbia-class ballistic missile submarine, illustration by U.S. Navy

    Commentary

    Making AUKUS Work

    In September 2021, President Biden announced the creation of AUKUS, a trilateral, experimental arrangement among the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom focused on defense technology. The barriers to success are numerous but the partnership could offer significant opportunities.

  • U.S. Marine Corps High Mobility Artillery Rocket Systems with 3d Battalion, 12th Marines, 3d Marine Division simulate live-fire missions during Exercise Talisman Sabre 2021 at Shoalwater Bay Training Area, Queensland, Australia, July 15, 2021. TS21 supports the U.S. National Defense Strategy by enhancing our ability to protect the homeland and provide combat-credible forces to address the full range of potential security concerns in the Indo-Pacific, photo by Lance Cpl. Ujian Gosun/U.S. Marine Corps

    Report

    Establishing a Sovereign Guided Weapons Enterprise for Australia

    Australia's 2020 Defence Strategic Update calls for increased weapon inventories across the Australian Defence Force. How can Australia's creation of a Sovereign Guided Weapons Enterprise be informed by comparable international case studies?

South America

RAND Centers

  • Latin American Social Policy Research

    RAND conducts research throughout Latin America and the Latin American population in the United States in the areas of aging, social determinants and consequences of health, saving for retirement, social security coverage, labor market dynamics, and migration.

Recent Work

  • Excavators are seen at a nickel ore mining area at Kolonedalle village near Morowali, Indonesia's Sulawesi island, January 14, 2014, photo by Yusuf Ahmad/Reuters

    Report

    China's Role in the Global Development of Critical Resources

    China's extensive foreign investments in energy infrastructure and critical minerals have raised concerns. Case studies in coal power, electricity transmission, and seabed mining examine China's behaviors and suggest ways to build capacity among host nations to minimize the potential effects of an overreliance on China.

  • Horus FT-100 in production flight, <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FT_Sistemas_FT-100_Horus#/media/File:Horus_1_-_Passagem_Baixa.jpg">photo</a> by Nei.brasil / <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/">CC BY-SA 4.0</a>

    Report

    Opportunities for the Brazilian Navy to Employ Additional Unmanned Systems

    The Brazilian Navy needs to have both the capabilities and capacity to meet a wide range of demands over vast and diverse geographic areas. What are some of the potential ways the Brazilian Navy could use unmanned systems to improve effectiveness and, potentially, reduce risks and costs?

  • RAND Weekly Recap

    Blog

    Understanding Violent Extremism, 'Blockships,' VMT Fee: RAND Weekly Recap

    This weekly recap focuses on firsthand accounts of violent extremism, lessons from the recent blockage in the Suez Canal, and if a federal Vehicle Miles Travel fee could replace the gas tax.

  • A Venezuelan refugee with his daughter on his shoulders asks for help at a traffic light in Medellin, Colombia, February 11, 2019, photo by David Himbert/Hans Lucas via Reuters Connect

    Commentary

    Colombia's Trailblazing Model for Refugees

    Colombia recently announced it will give temporary protection status to a million undocumented Venezuelan refugees, with permission to live and work in the country for 10 years. In doing so, it created a new model for managing its own refugee situation and perhaps others elsewhere.

  • People walk near India Gate on a smoggy afternoon in New Delhi, India, November 15, 2020, photo by Adnan Abidi/Reuters

    Commentary

    Curb Climate Change After COVID-19? Fast-Growing India and Brazil Are Key

    India and Brazil are facing pressure to launch recoveries after the economic devastation caused by the pandemic. Will they backslide on their Paris climate agreement commitments, or will the expected return of the United States to the pact encourage them to build a more sustainable economic future?

  • Sunrise over Guanabara Bay in Rio de Janeiro, photo by dabldy/Getty Images

    Journal Article

    A Heat Vulnerability Index Tested in Rio De Janeiro

    Urban areas are often hotter than their rural surroundings, exacerbating heat waves and make it difficult to determine heat-related deaths. RAND researchers investigated how to construct and validate a heat vulnerability index for the city of Rio de Janeiro.

North America

RAND Centers

  • Privacy, www, Web Page, http, Coding, Presentation, Secrecy, Security System, Network Server, Abstract, Surveillance, Travel Agency, Choosing, Backgrounds, Global Business, Wide, Large, Authority, Mobility, Connection, Futuristic, Forbidden, Safety, Security, Accessibility, Technology, Worried, Internet, Bar Code Reader, Data, concerns, Headquarters, internet technology, Internet Background, Cloud Computing, Internet Concept

    The RAND Center for Global Risk and Security

    The RAND Center for Global Risk and Security (CGRS) conducts objective research on future security trends—analyzing anything that impacts the security of individuals, communities, nations, and the world at large.

  • Claire Byun, left, and Olin Parker, prepare sandbags for distribution at the Mid-City Library as Hurricane Delta approaches in New Orleans, Louisiana, October 7, 2020, photo by Kathleen Flynn/Reuters

    RAND Gulf States Policy Institute

    The RAND Gulf States Policy Institute was created in 2005 as a collaboration between RAND and local universities to support hurricane recovery and long-term economic development in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. Today, RAND Gulf States provides objective analysis to help answer the region's toughest questions related to a wide range of issues including coastal protection and restoration, health care, and workforce development.

Recent Work

  • Sailors on the USS <em>Wasp</em> observe as the Japanese destroyer JS <em>Yuugiri</em> moors alongside in Okinawa, Japan, April 23, 2018, photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Daniel Barker/U.S. Navy

    Commentary

    Japan's Strategic Shift: Significant, but Implementation Hurdles May Await

    Japan's new strategic documents appear to demonstrate a recognition in Tokyo that it must do more for its own defense in the face of unprecedented security challenges. The dedication of resources, pursuit of new capabilities, and overarching commitment to a more robust defense are all significant moves that represent landmark change by one of America's key allies.

  • RAND Weekly Recap

    Blog

    Avoiding a Long War in Ukraine, Gun Violence, Migrant Surges: RAND Weekly Recap

    This weekly recap focuses on how the United States can help avoid a long war in Ukraine, responding to the gun violence crisis, limits on teachers’ instruction, and more.

  • Screen showing computer code with malicious code logged error, photo by solarseven/Getty Images

    Commentary

    Software Supply Chain Risk Is Growing, but Mitigation Solutions Exist

    Software supply chain security has emerged as a leading risk because of the massively fragmented and decentralized nature of modern software development. While we still have much to learn as a community about this risk, there are concrete steps we can take to better understand and mitigate it.

  • Soldiers of China's PLA take part in a joint multinational U.N. peacekeeping military exercise with troops from Pakistan, Mongolia, and Thailand, in Henan province, China, September 15, 2021, photo by Carlos Garcia Rawlins/Reuters

    Testimony

    China's Overseas Military Diplomacy and Implications for U.S. Interests

    As the U.S.-China competition intensifies, military diplomacy is one of the tools that China could potentially use to gain advantage. What are some ways that China’s military diplomacy activities could challenge U.S. interests? And what are some recommendations for U.S. policymakers?

  • Tent encampments, where people experiencing homelessness live, line the boardwalk on Venice Beach in Los Angeles, California, April 14, 2021, photo by Lucy Nicholson/Reuters

    Report

    Unhoused Population Increased by 18 Percent in Three Hot-Spot L.A. Neighborhoods

    RAND conducted a yearlong count of people experiencing unsheltered homelessness in three high-priority neighborhoods in Los Angeles. These populations rose by an average of 18 percent over the period, despite encampment cleanups and other events.

  • U.S. Army soldiers conduct a convoy in support of Combined Joint Task Force Operation Inherent Resolve near northeastern Syria, September 21, 2020, photo by Staff Sgt. Michael West/U.S. Army

    Commentary

    Appreciating U.S. Ground Force Contributions to Operation Inherent Resolve

    Defeating ISIS hinged on a ground fight, requiring the grueling liberation of territory kilometer by kilometer. While Iraqi forces bore the brunt of frontline fighting, U.S. forces were also engaged in on-the-ground combat operations that hastened the defeat of ISIS. Appreciating such contributions will be necessary to distill the right lessons so that we might correctly apply them to future irregular warfare.

Africa

  • Call with the Experts

    The Middle East and North Africa

    RAND experts Brian Michael Jenkins and Dalia Dassa Kaye discuss current events in the Middle East and North Africa. Their discussion with RAND Media Relations Director Jeffrey Hiday includes how changes in Egypt, Iran, and Syria are reverberating within the region, and beyond, via terrorist networks including al Qaeda.

Recent Work

  • An Algerian corvette fires a Chinese-made anti-ship missile, photo by Hakim Djebbour/Wikimedia (CC by 4.0)

    Tool

    Mapping Chinese and Russian Military and Security Exports to Africa

    To map the spread of China's and Russia's influence in Africa, RAND researchers analyzed which African countries received weapons and private military contractors from China and Russia during 2018-2021.

  • A People's Liberation Army (PLA) delegation (right) visits a United States military facility

    Report

    Implications of a Global People's Liberation Army: Historical Lessons for Responding to China's Long-Term Global Basing Ambitions

    Overseas military access and basing is a critical component of China's global military ambitions. In this report, the authors examine three case studies among the United States' competitors to help anticipate what Chinese overseas access and basing might look like in the 2030s. They assess the risks posed by Chinese military expansion and recommend U.S. strategies to help shape the environment in which Chinese global ambitions will unfold.

  • A Chinese military parade featuring mounted infantry flying the Chinese flag

    Report

    The People's Liberation Army's Search for Overseas Basing and Access: A Framework to Assess Potential Host Nations

    The authors develop a framework of 17 indicators to assess valuable attributes of potential host nations from Beijing's perspective, focusing not only on the utility of host nations (desirability) but also on China's ability to secure access (feasibility). They recommend strategies for the U.S. government, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the U.S. Army to better understand China's overseas plans and to prioritize risks to U.S. forces.

  • The foundation stone laying ceremony of the support base of China's PLA in Djibouti, August 1, 2017, photo by Xinhua/Alamy

    Report

    What Are China's Global Basing Ambitions?

    China appears likely to seek military access and basing in its immediate vicinity and in the Middle East, but parts of Africa and the Indo-Pacific are also of interest. The United States should carefully prioritize where to resist Chinese access and basing and where to reinforce U.S. relationships.

  • Excavators are seen at a nickel ore mining area at Kolonedalle village near Morowali, Indonesia's Sulawesi island, January 14, 2014, photo by Yusuf Ahmad/Reuters

    Report

    China's Role in the Global Development of Critical Resources

    China's extensive foreign investments in energy infrastructure and critical minerals have raised concerns. Case studies in coal power, electricity transmission, and seabed mining examine China's behaviors and suggest ways to build capacity among host nations to minimize the potential effects of an overreliance on China.

  • Workers make parts for pneumatic guns at one of the eight manufacturers licensed by the Ministry of Public Security in Qingliu county, Fujian province, China, May 26, 2022, photo by Hu Guolin/FeatureChina via AP Images, Workers make parts for pneumatic guns at one of the eight manufa

    Tool

    Where Has China Sent Weapons and Security Contractors?

    China exported weapons to 38 countries from 2018 to 2021. It also exported private security contractors to protect and secure its interests in other countries, such as mining facilities and ports. A map of the exports shows China's expansive influence across Asia and Africa and into Latin America.