Tools and Resources to Help with Medical Response
The Stop the Bleed program includes training on applying tourniquets and putting pressure on wounds, which is essential for teaching bystanders to attend to injuries as quickly as possible and preventing further fatalities (Stop the Bleed, undated). The American Foundation for Firearm Injury Reduction in Medicine and the American College of Surgeons encourage this training in a train-the-trainer mode for medical professionals so that they are able to share it with others.
Tactical Emergency Casualty Care (TECC), which is related to Tactical Combat Casualty Care, is a concept that was adapted from the military to provide care in nonmilitary tactical situations. The Committee for Tactical Emergency Casualty Care provides an overview and guidance in this area, and the National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians provides training in TECC (Committee for Tactical Emergency Casualty Care, undated a; National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians, undated). TECC provides guidance and resources for the following:
- care by zone during a mass attack, including
- care in hot zones (i.e., direct threat areas)
- care in warm zones (i.e., indirect threat areas)
- care in evacuation zones
- active bystanders
- first responders with a duty to act
- basic and advanced life support
- pediatric care (Committee for Tactical Emergency Casualty Care, undated b).
HHS has a white paper, titled Mass Casualty Trauma Triage: Paradigms and Pitfalls, which describes how triage needs to work differently during mass casualty events (HHS ASPR TRACIE, 2019).