Putting It Together: A Case Study to Support Planning and Training for Mass Attack Response

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Rather than have a stand-alone case study on mass attack response, this toolkit references an active shooter response scenario prepared by PERF. As part of its larger Critical Response Toolkit for First-Line Supervisors (PERF, undated b), PERF offers an active shooting training scenario that was written to be complex and challenging (PERF, undated a). Although this scenario was written for training first-line supervisors, it can be readily adapted for planning for mass attack response more broadly and for training a variety of other roles in mitigating mass attacks.

Exemplar After-Action Reports

1 October After-Action Review from the Las Vegas music festival shooting provides useful lessons learned (Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department, 2019).

The U.S. Secret Service's National Threat Assessment Center provides several reports on mass attacks, threat assessments, school violence, and other related topics (U.S. Secret Service, undated).

Mass Shootings at Virginia Tech: Addendum to the Report of the Review Panel provides after-action information from the Virginia Tech shooting (TriData Division, System Planning Corporation, 2009).

Rescue, Response, and Resilience: A Critical Incident Review of the Orlando Public Safety Response to the Attack on the Pulse Nightclub provides after-action information from the Pulse nightclub shooting (Straub et al., 2017).

Below is a series of journal articles written by staff at Texas State University's ALERRT program, which is sponsored by the FBI (see ALERRT, undated d). These articles provide key findings on site security improvements, bystander interventions, and multiagency incident response, which have been reflected in the prior sections.

  • Blair and Schweit, 2014
  • Blair and Martaindale, 2017
  • Blair, Martaindale, and Sandel, 2019
  • Blair et al., 2011
  • Martaindale and Blair, 2019
  • Martaindale, Sandel, and Blair, 2017
  • Sandel, Martaindale, and Blair, 2021.