For Further Reading: Studies on Initial Detection, Indicators, Warning, and Risk Factors

The following are references on indicators, warning signs, and risk factors related to mass attacks. These were used to identify the top findings on indicators in this section as well as the top findings on risk factors in the next section.

  • Addressing Risk of Violent Behavior in Youth briefing (HHS SAMHSA, June 2018)
  • Building on Clues—Methods to Help State and Local Law Enforcement Detect and Characterize Terrorist Activity (IHSS, April 2011)
  • Study of Pre-Attack Behaviors of Active Shooters in the US Between 2000–2013 (FBI, June 2018)
  • A Comparison of Averted and Completed School Attacks from the Police Foundation Averted School Violence Database (Police Foundation 2019)
  • Targeted Violence Averted—College and University Case Studies (IACLEA, 2020)
  • Clemmow, Caitlin, Sandy Schumann, Nadine L. Salman, and Paul Gill, "The Base Rate Study: Developing Base Rates for Risk Factors and Indicators for Engagement in Violent Extremism," Journal of Forensic Sciences, Vol. 65, No. 3, 2020, pp. 865–881.
  • Craun, Sarah W., Karie A. Gibson, Amanda G. Ford, Kristen Solik, and James Silver, "(In)action: Variation in Bystander Responses Between Persons of Concern and Active Shooters," Journal of Threat Assessment and Management, Vol. 7, No. 1-2, 2020, pp. 113–121.
  • Crenshaw, Martha, Erik Dahl, and Margaret Wilson, Comparing Failed, Foiled, Completed and Successful Terrorist Attacks: Final Report Year 5, College Park, Md.: National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism, December 2017.
  • Dahl, Erik J., "The Plots That Failed: Intelligence Lessons Learned from Unsuccessful Terrorist Attacks Against the United States," Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, Vol. 34, No. 8, 2011, pp. 621–648.
  • Difo, Germain, Ordinary Measures, Extraordinary Results: An Assessment of Foiled Plots Since 9/11, Washington, D.C.: American Security Project, May 2010.
  • Duwe, Grant, "Patterns and Prevalence of Lethal Mass Violence," Criminology & Public Policy, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2020, pp. 17–35.
  • Gibson, Karie A., Sarah W. Craun, Amanda G. Ford, Kristen Solik, and James Silver, "Possible Attackers? A Comparison Between the Behaviors and Stressors of Persons of Concern and Active Shooters," Journal of Threat Assessment and Management, Vol. 7, No. 1-2, 2020, pp. 1–12.
  • Klein, B. R., Gruenewald, J., Chermak, S. M., & Freilich, J. D. (2019). Investigative Strategies on Foiled Plots. Journal of Qualitative Criminal Justice & Criminology.
  • Knoll, James L. IV, and J. Reid Meloy, "Mass Murder and the Violent Paranoid Spectrum," Psychiatric Annals, Vol. 44, No. 5, 2014, pp. 236–243.
  • Langman, Peter, "Desperate Identities: A Bio-Psycho-Social Analysis of Perpetrators of Mass Violence," Criminology and Public Policy, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2020, pp. 61–84.
  • Lankford, Adam, and James Silver, "Why Have Public Mass Shootings Become More Deadly? Assessing How Perpetrators' Motives and Methods Have Changed Over Time," Criminology & Public Policy, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2020, pp. 37–60.
  • Strom, Kevin, John Hollywood, and Mark Pope, Terrorist Plots Against the United States: What We Have Really Faced, and How We Might Best Defend Against It, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, WR-1113-DHSST, 2016. As of January 4, 2022: https://www.rand.org/pubs/working_papers/WR1113.html

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Initial Detection - Case Example