Case management for crime-involved drug users is designed mainly to reduce further drug use and crime but may also promote reductions in HIV risk behavior. In a five-site evaluation, the authors examined the effects of a case-management protocol knows as Treatment Alternatives to Street Crime (TASC) on drug users' frequency of unprotected sex and frequency of sex while high on drugs and/or alcohol. At one site, case management had a favorable effect on the frequency of unprotected sex. At four sites, case management had a favorable effect on the frequency of sex while high. These effects were moderated by users' baseline level of risk behavior or history of related problem behaviors (drug use and criminal conduct). Implications for case management and drug use treatment are discussed.
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