Peripheal Arterial Disease (PAD) serves as a strong but under-recognized independent predictor of cardiovascular disease risk, or, alternatively conceptualized, as a predictor of the combined impact of unmeasured risk factors and ongoing disease processes. Since cardiovascular disease risk assessment is increasingly invoked to guide the fervor of cardiovascular disease preventive treatment efforts, and PAD powerfully contributes to risk, the presence and severity of PAD should be assessed and incorporated in cardiovascular disease risk analysis. Clearly, this requires increased education of physicians regarding the potent prognostic implications of PAD.
This report is part of the RAND Corporation External publication series. Many RAND studies are published in peer-reviewed scholarly journals, as chapters in commercial books, or as documents published by other organizations.
Our mission to help improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis is enabled through our core values of quality and objectivity and our unwavering commitment to the highest level of integrity and ethical behavior. To help ensure our research and analysis are rigorous, objective, and nonpartisan, we subject our research publications to a robust and exacting quality-assurance process; avoid both the appearance and reality of financial and other conflicts of interest through staff training, project screening, and a policy of mandatory disclosure; and pursue transparency in our research engagements through our commitment to the open publication of our research findings and recommendations, disclosure of the source of funding of published research, and policies to ensure intellectual independence. For more information, visit www.rand.org/about/research-integrity.
The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.