This study examined whether higher rates of depressive symptoms among amphetamine compared with cocaine users result from amphetamine use itself, polydrug use, or experiencing a major lifetime depressive episode and whether depressive symptoms among amphetamine users are more likely to persist 12 months after treatment. The association between amphetamine use and depressive symptoms disappears when controlling for polydrug use and lifetime major depressive episode. Polydrug use and lifetime depressive episode are significantly related to depressive symptoms in the year preceding treatment. Amphetamine use at intake does not predict depressive symptoms among individuals who are abstinent at follow-up, and amphetamine users are no more likely than cocaine users to report depression at a 12-month follow-up.
This report is part of the RAND Corporation External publication series. Many RAND studies are published in peer-reviewed scholarly journals, as chapters in commercial books, or as documents published by other organizations.
Our mission to help improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis is enabled through our core values of quality and objectivity and our unwavering commitment to the highest level of integrity and ethical behavior. To help ensure our research and analysis are rigorous, objective, and nonpartisan, we subject our research publications to a robust and exacting quality-assurance process; avoid both the appearance and reality of financial and other conflicts of interest through staff training, project screening, and a policy of mandatory disclosure; and pursue transparency in our research engagements through our commitment to the open publication of our research findings and recommendations, disclosure of the source of funding of published research, and policies to ensure intellectual independence. For more information, visit www.rand.org/about/principles.
The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.