MANTRA ‐ a Balloon Mission to Study the Odd‐nitrogen Budget of the Stratosphere
Published In: Atmosphere-Ocean, v. 43, no. 4, 2005, p. 283-299
Posted on RAND.org on January 01, 2005
The Middle Atmosphere Nitrogen TRend Assessment (MANTRA) series of high-altitude balloon flights is being undertaken to investigate changes in the concentrations of northern hemisphere mid-latitude stratospheric ozone, and of nitrogen and chlorine compounds that play a role in ozone chemistry. Four campaigns have been carried out to date, all from Vanscoy, Saskatchewan, Canada (52°01'N, 107°02'W, 511.0 m). The first MANTRA mission took place in August 1998, with the balloon flight on 24 August 1998 being the first Canadian launch of a large high-altitude balloon in about fifteen years. The balloon carried a payload of instruments to measure atmospheric composition, and made measurements from a float altitude of 32-38 km for one day. Three of these instruments had been flown on the Stratoprobe flights of the Atmospheric Environment Service (now the Meteorological Service of Canada) in the 1970s and early 1980s, providing a link to historical data predating the onset of mid-latitude ozone loss.The primary measurements obtained from the balloon-borne instruments were vertical profiles of ozone, NO2, HNO3, HCl, CFC-11, CFC-12, N2O, CH4, temperature, and aerosol backscatter. Total column measurements of ozone, NO2, SO2, and aerosol optical depth were made by three ground-based spectrometers deployed during the campaign. Regular ozonesonde and radiosonde launches were also conducted during the two weeks prior to the main launch in order to characterize the local atmospheric conditions (winds, pressure, temperature, humidity) in the vicinity of the primary balloon flight. The data have been compared with the Model for Evaluating oZONe Trends (MEZON) chemical transport model, the University of California at Irvine photochemical box model, and the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM) to test our current understanding of model photochemistry and mid-latitude species correlations. This paper provides an overview of the MANTRA 1998 mission, and serves as an introduction to the accompanying papers in this issue of Atmosphere-Ocean that describe specific aspects and results of this campaign.