Since September 11, 2001, and the anthrax attacks that followed, a substantial federal investment--totaling well in excess of $5 billion--has been made to increase our nation's ability to prepare for, and respond to, public health emergencies. Yet despite anecdotal reports suggesting that progress has been made, it is unclear whether these investments have left the nation better prepared to respond to a bioterrorist attack, pandemic influenza, or any other large-scale public health emergency.
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