It is now possible for probation officers to detect probationer alcohol use remotely and continuously. This essay describes three devices intended to collect Drug and alcohol use Information from REmote and Continuous Testing, or what the author calls DIRECT surveillance. It also highlights some of the major questions associated with the implementation, consequences, and future of DIRECT surveillance. While most of the focus is on alcohol use among probationers and parolees, the essay does discuss the use of these technologies in other settings, and for other drugs. It also addresses issues related to other types of electronic monitoring which can be used separately or in conjunction with DIRECT surveillance (e.g., GPS).
This report is part of the RAND Corporation External publication series. Many RAND studies are published in peer-reviewed scholarly journals, as chapters in commercial books, or as documents published by other organizations.
Our mission to help improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis is enabled through our core values of quality and objectivity and our unwavering commitment to the highest level of integrity and ethical behavior. To help ensure our research and analysis are rigorous, objective, and nonpartisan, we subject our research publications to a robust and exacting quality-assurance process; avoid both the appearance and reality of financial and other conflicts of interest through staff training, project screening, and a policy of mandatory disclosure; and pursue transparency in our research engagements through our commitment to the open publication of our research findings and recommendations, disclosure of the source of funding of published research, and policies to ensure intellectual independence. For more information, visit www.rand.org/about/principles.
The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.