Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency world-wide. In Mexico, in 2006, 37.8% of children under 2 years of age were diagnosed as anemic. Similarly, 20% of children between 2-5 years of age, as well as 16.6% of children between 5-11 years of age were diagnosed with anemia. Children 1-4 years of age consuming a Mexican diet ingest an adequate amount of iron (=6.2 mg/day), but the intake of heme-iron is low, and ingestion of iron absorption inhibitors is high; thus, the overall iron bioavailability in the diet is poor (3.85%). Strategies to prevent and treat iron deficiency and anemia may be focused on either increasing the amount of ingested iron or lowering iron losses; whereas in the newborn, delayed umbilical cord clamping is advised. These strategies require a comprehensive and concerted approach among institutions, governmental sectors, community active members, educators, risk group, families, etc.
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