It is hard to remember a time when the U.S. Army faced a wider and more formidable array of threats. Since shortly after 9/11, it has been fighting a determined and adaptive enemy who has proven to be adept at using asymmetric techniques to counter or avoid U.S. military strengths. We expect conflicts of this kind to continue, in various forms, for many years to come, and to be a primary focus of U.S. defense efforts. Clearly, today’s challenges call for an Army that truly embodies “full-spectrum” capabilities and is capable of responding quickly to a range of threats as they emerge around the globe-including in the United States. This is the force the Army seeks when it talks of pursuing “a campaign-quality Army with a joint and expeditionary mindset.” The effort could not be more timely or important: hence we have chosen to focus this year’s annual report on RAND Arroyo Center’s support to the pursuit of a campaign-quality Army. The report describes the results of several research efforts that deal with the issues facing the Army as it makes what arguably might be the most difficult transformation in its 200-year history.