Reprint and Linking Permissions

Reprint Permissions

All requests from publishers, instructors, or authors to use material published by RAND must be submitted in writing to either the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) or to RAND's permissions manager. *

The Copyright Clearance Center is authorized to handle some permission requests for RAND. Contact CCC by phone at 978-750-8400 or by fax at 978-750-4470. If you prefer to contact RAND directly, or if the material being requested is outside the jurisdiction of CCC, call or send email to:

Beth Bernstein
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Phone: 310-393-0411 x7423

Once permission is granted in writing from RAND for a specific use, it must be acknowledged that permission was expressly granted by RAND, Santa Monica, CA. RAND must be cited as the original source and copyright holder, along with the title and year of publication followed by the words “Reprinted with permission.”

* Exceptions to this include reports funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. See permissions information on these materials below.

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Funded Reports

Reports funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation are published on “Open Access” terms, under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Generic License (CC BY 4.0) or an equivalent license. All users of the publication are permitted to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format and transform and build upon the material, including for any purpose (including commercial) without further permission or fees being required.

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Linking Permissions

Unauthorized posting of RAND PDF's to your site is prohibited. However, you may post direct text hyperlinks to RAND documents without written permission.

When linking to RAND documents, we prefer that you link to the HTML product page (e.g., rather than the PDF associated with it. By linking to our site, you help RAND measure interest in our reports and ensure that your visitors are downloading the current version of our work.

Request a RAND Photo

To request a photo from RAND, please use this form. To request permission to use a photo already in your possession, please email