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As critical functions in the United States rely increasingly on networked information and operational technology, the potential for cyber threats to disrupt National Critical Functions (NCFs) is growing.

The United States has made progress in cybersecurity, despite numerous emerging and enduring challenges. The Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) partnered with the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the intelligence community to provide cybersecurity support to state and local election officials during the 2018 and 2020 election cycles. CISA provides cybersecurity services and products across critical infrastructure sectors and entities responsible for NCFs. Law enforcement has partnered with the private sector and partners abroad to dismantle malicious cyber infrastructure, and has indicted malicious cyber actors from Russia, China, and North Korea.

As cybersecurity threats evolve, organizations across sectors and functions need to continue to focus on cybersecurity basics and increase cooperation to combat shared cyber threats. This brochure describes RAND Corporation research and analysis in this area, with examples from such diverse areas as organizational planning and implementation and cybersecurity workforce recruitment, retention, and management.

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This report is part of the RAND Corporation Corporate publication series. Corporate publications are program or department brochures, newsletters, pamphlets, and miscellaneous information about the RAND Corporation or RAND's business units. Some corporate publications are published in the AR series as Annual Reports or as Administrative Reports. Administrative Reports are often required by the client or sponsor and provide a status report on work resulting from a contract.

The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.